Native American Veteran and Canadian aboriginal veteran List.

Iroquois Franco War

1609 - 1701

 

 

Colonial war drawing title

21,500 COMMITTED (Estimate)

Number of DEAD IN SERVICE unknown.

 

 

 

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Iroquois

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HURONIA

Erie, Neutral, Ottawa, Ojibway, Mississaugas, Potawatomi, Algonquin, Shawnee, Wenrohronon, Mohicans, Innu, Abenaki, Miamis, Illinois

KINGDOM OF ENGLAND

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UNITED PROVINCES

 

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KINGDOM OF FRANCE

 

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AT LEAST 1,500 WARRIORS AND 4,500 SOLDIERS. AT LEAST 20,000 WARRIORS AND 1,700 SOLDIERS.

The main battles:

Sorel (1610) · Long Sault (1660) · Montreal (1660) · Montreal (1661) · Lachine (1689) · The Prairie (1691) · Mohawk Valley (1692)

 

When the French arrived in Canada at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Algonquian tribes living there were already in conflict with the Iroquois. Samuel de Champlain, who founded Quebec in 1608, soon formed a commercial and political alliance with the Algonquins, which propelled the fledgling French colony into wars between Algonquins and Iroquois, with Champlain pledging to his allies to support them. help against their enemies.

 

Defect of the Yroquois at Lake Champlain

 


In 1609 there was a clash on the shores of Lake Champlain. The Algonquins won the victory against the Iroquois, thanks to the French and their rifles, unknown to the Indian tribes. Champlain kills two Iroquois with rifle. During two other battles in 1611 and 1615, the French still defeated the Iroquois and seized an Iroquois fort, before a precarious peace was concluded between Champlain and the tribe of the five nations. This peace may allow the French colony to grow quietly during the 1620s, but hostilities between the settlers and the Iroquois resumed in the 1640s.

In 1641, the governor of Montmagny built a fort at the mouth of the Richelieu, a nascent river at Lake Champlain and flowing north, connecting the St. Lawrence and the Hudson. The movements of the Iroquois become more difficult, which only exacerbates the already tense situation between Iroquois and French settlers.

The first tensions began after May 17, 1642, day when about fifty French colonists under the direction of Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve land on the point where was the place Royale previously occupied by Champlain and named the site Ville-Marie, in the honor of the Virgin Mary. Beyond Montreal, the Lachine Rapids, believed to lead to China, constituted a natural barrier. But the founders of the city venture there and up the nearby Ottawa River. The Iroquois then decided to block this river in 1643.

 

From 1646 to 1653, the Iroquois attack the Hurons, the Algonquins and their French allies, make prisoners they torture to intimidate the arrivals. Military expeditions in response to the Iroquois incursions do not provide a glimpse of a lasting and beneficial peace for the crown. In order to restore calm and royal authority, the Carignan-Sallières Regiment was dispatched to New France in 1665 with the mission to subdue the Iroquois nations. At the price of a devastating campaign, they are forced to look for openings for peace. A period of prosperity opens for the colony.

 

This climate of stability does not last and hostilities resume quickly, encouraged by the settlers of New England, who engage their Iroquois allies to undertake new armed incursions in the St. Lawrence Valley. The year 1690 saw Governor Frontenac repel an English attack on Quebec. In retaliation, Iroquoisie is pacified by arms.

Despite the efforts undertaken and the talks begun in Montreal and Quebec, the achievement of a general peace with the five Iroquois nations fails.

 

 

 

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In November 1688, the Glorious Revolution overthrew James II, the ally of Louis XIV. The Iroquois learn from the English of Albany that England and France are at war, and abandon any idea of ​​peace. Jacques-Rene de Brisay was not yet aware of the reversal of alliance. As a result, while he was waiting for Iroquois delegates to ratify a peace treaty, they raised troops.

The massacre of Lachine took place on August 5, 1689: about 1500 Iroquois warriors, pushed in their actions by the English, fell down on the village of Lachine, at the gates of Montreal, near the rapids of the same name. Twenty-four settlers were killed, 70 to 90 taken prisoners, 42 of whom never returned. Of 77 houses, 56 were razed by the Iroquois and their allies in the Five Nations Confederacy. The Lachine massacre and its aftermath would have killed one in ten Quebecers.

In 1696, the Iroquois allied with the Ottawas, and the French trading empire was thus threatened. Senior officials from Montreal and Quebec City asked Frontenac to launch a major attack on the Iroquois villages. Frontenac only launched the campaign when he had received the express order of the Minister of the Navy. In July 1696, the army, made up of regular troops, militia and Indian allies, 2,150 strong, left Montreal for the final march to the village of Onontagués but found nothing but ashes: the The enemy had fled into the woods after burning everything. The army destroyed the corn in the fields and all the food it could find, hidden in the village and the surrounding area.

At the same time, Frontenac continues to encourage the establishment of new trading posts in the West. For example, forts were built in the Mississippi area and in the Prairies, allowing the coureurs des bois to trade with the Sioux and the Plains Indians. The first intercolonial conflict continued until 1697, when peace was signed between France and England by the Treaty of Ryswick. Negotiations were then undertaken between the French and Iroquois, who were almost no longer supported by their English allies in peace with France, and ended in 1701 with the Great Peace of Montreal.

 

 

Great peace montreal

Copy of the Peace Treaty of 1701. (The original document of the Peace Treaty of 1701 is kept in the National Archives of Overseas .) Pictograms of signatory nations: 1. Ouentsiouan represents the Iroquois nation of Onontagués and signs a wading bird. 2. For the Tsonnontouan, it is Tourengouenon who affixes the signature of the turtle. 3. For the Onneeiouts, the signature represents a fork in the middle of which is a stone. 4. Among the Goyogouins ("people of the great pipe", the drawing of a pipe goes without saying!) 5. The mark of Kondiaronk, called Rat (a muskrat), appears on the treaty of 1701. Another chief Huron was able to affix this mark in the name of this great leader, who died two days before the signing of the treaty 6. Bear, the signature of Chief Kinongé, known as the Pike, for the Ottawa Sable 7. The mark of the Abenaki of Acadia, by Chief Mescouadoué 8. The bear, the mark of the Ottawa Sinagos 9. For the people of the Sault, the bear also signed by Haronhiateka 10. The signature of the Chief of the People of the Mountain is a deer 11. Chief Kileouiskingié signs a fish for the Ottawa Kiskarons 12. The fork represents the place where the Outaouais of the Forks live, at the confluence of three rivers 13. Represented by Onanguicé, chief poutouatami the Mississaugates (Ojibway Nation) sign a thunderbird 14. Amikoues Affix the Mark of the Beaver 15 For the Ojibwes, the Ouabangué chief affixed the mark of a crane. 16. Among the Algonquins, there are two signatures: a wader or a crane and, next to it, a human being. 17. A perch surmounted by a scalp serves as a signature for the Pangichéas (Piankashaws) village. 18. The Chichicatalo brand, a highly respected leader among the Miamis, includes two symbols, including a crane. 19. The mark of Chef Toolirine could represent the Crees. In the Cree language, the suffix -irin means "man". 20. Represented by Onanguicé, Koueras Koueatenons (group illinois) sign with a bow and an arrow. 21. The village mark Peorias (Illinois) is a long-tailed turtle. 22. The emblem of Tapouaroas (illinois group). 23. The emblem of the Monisgouenars (Illinois nation), established at the River des Moines. 24. The village of Marouas (group illinois), sign of a frog. 25. For Poutouatamis, the mark of a chicot and three roots. 26. For the Kaskaskias (Illinois nation), a feather notched. 27. The mark of the village of Ouiatanons (Namibia nation) is a quarry. 28. Sturgeon is the trademark of Sakis (Sauks). 29. Among the Outagamis, or Foxes, the signature is that of ... fox. 30. The Thunderbird represents the clan symbol of the Puppies. 31. The mark of the Malominis (Folles Oats) is that of a thunderbird holding a rod of wild oats. 32. The knight of Callière, Brochart de Champigny, and others. (Notes taken from: Alain Beaulieu and Roland Viau, The Great Peace, Chronicle of a Diplomatic Saga , Montreal, Éditions Libre Libre, 2001, pp. 109-111.)