1610 - 29 DECEMBER 1890
247 DEATH IN SERVICE
The term "Indian Wars" is the name given to a whole series of armed conflicts between Indigenous Indians and European settlers during the period of exploration and colonization, and the 65 armed conflicts between these Indian peoples. North America to Americans, 1778 to 1890. However, this phrase is misleading in the sense that it may suggest that Native Americans formed a united fighting bloc against the United States. In reality they constituted a diverse group of tribes and clans, often with different interests. It was partly this lack of unity that led to their final defeat.
The expansionist will of the settlers attracted by virgin lands reinforced the animosity between the two peoples, thus multiplying the number of overflows. These wars were episodic and localized. Although the United States Congress never officially declared any war, from 1778, the army was constantly in conflict with these Amerindians. A summary of the battles could give us a list like the one presented below.
Indian warriors began wearing military uniforms early in American colonization when European powers regularly fought for control of the continent. Native friendship and military strength were very important in these conflicts, so the Europeans strove for Native American loyalty and military support.
The conflicts already existed between the Amerindian nations before the arrival of the Europeans. The European armies have taken advantage of these existing alliances and divergences to master the territory. In reality, militarily speaking, Amerindian soldiers are an important part of the construction of modern North America.
Below is the number of soldiers identified for a battle of the Indian Wars in particular, we invite visitors to visit the corresponding pages for more details.
|CONFLICTS||DATED||COMMITTED||DEATH IN SERVICE|
|1ST SEMINOLE WAR||1817-1818||1,500|
|BLACK HAWK WAR||1832||752||2|
|2ND SEMINOLE WAR||1836-1843||315||109|
|US ARMY SCOUT||1866-1947||5,817||114|
|1610 - 1646||ANGLO POWHATANS WAR||Are a series of wars that pitted the settlers of the British colony of Virginia to the confederation of Native American Powhatans.|
|1637||PEQUOT WAR||The English from the Massachusetts colony attack Pequot village of Missituck with mercenaries Mochegans and Narragansetts, there are between 400 and 700 dead. The use of the name Pequot becomes outlawed in the English colonies. The Pequots survivors are hunted down and sold as slaves.|
|1655 - 1664||Wars between the Algonquins and the colonies of the United Provinces (present-day Netherlands), New York and New Jersey.|
|1675 - 1676||WAR OF KING PHILIP||Conflict between the Wampanoag and the English settlers of the Mayflower, Massachusetts. 600 English settlers and 4,000 Amerindians are killed.|
|1676||Indian Ocaneechees Massacre by Nathaniel Bacon.|
|1711||Tuscarora war in Carolina against Native Americans who protected runaway slaves.|
|1763||WAR OF PONTIAC||Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa (Great Lakes tribe), leads the tribes of Ohio and the Great Lakes to hunt the British. Despite the military occupation of New France, Pontiac continues the fight to protect its territory against the British. The Pontiac rebellion will spread among other Native American peoples. The warriors of many tribes joined the Indian uprising to repel British forces and settlements out of their territory. This conflict will begin the last year of the Seven Years Anglo-French War (1754 - 1763).|
|1774||WAR OF LORD DUNMORE||The Treaty of Fort Stanwik causes additional pressure from settlers. In the spring of 1774, Shawnees tried to get rid of British settlers. Lord John Murray Dunmore, governor of Virginia, helps the Pennsylvania settlers to the repression: seven Mingos villages are destroyed, a fort is built in Little Kanawha River. October 10: Battle of Point Pleasant, the British beat the Shawnees. General Amherst gives the order to distribute infected covers of smallpox. Several thousand Delaware Indians are infected and spreading "smallpox" to other Indian nations. In these circumstances peace is imposed upon them. Virginia militia destroy several Shawnee villages during the negotiations.|
|1778||First treaty of the United States with an Indian tribe, the Delaware tribe.|
|JULY 13, 1787||the Northwest Ordinance opens the settlement of the Northwest Territories , between Appalachian, Great Lakes, Mississippi and Tennessee. No territory or Indian will be withdrawn without their consent, except at the end of a war declared by the Congress. No war was ever declared by the Congress to the tribes.|
|1790 - 1795||WAR OF YOUNG AMERICA||Following the North West ordinance, settlers began to advance more and more on the territories of the Shawnee, Ottawas and Miamis tribes. These tribes gathered to fight the federal armies.|
|1816 - 1821||FIRST WAR SEMINOLE||
The Seminoles are Creeks Indians settled in Florida in the 1700s, encouraged to establish themselves as farmers by the Spaniards, who hoped to stop the progression of the British to the South.
|MAY 28, 1830||INDIAN REMOVAL ACT||President Andrew Jackson enacts a law deporting Indians living east of the Mississippi River to the west of this river, mainly in Oklahoma, to mine gold from their homelands in Ohio and settle migrants from Europe. This law is declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and causes wars with the Cherokees until 1838. Until 1850, 100,000 Indians are deported.|
|1832||WAR OF BLACK HAWK||The Black Hawk Sauk warrior tries to drive the settlers out of the lands of his people. Allied to the Fox, he left the territory of Iowa where his people lived since the Treaty of St. Louis (1805) to reclaim his ancestral lands.|
|1838||THE TEARS TRACK||Five nations are deported to Oklahoma on a 1,750-kilometer path in the middle of winter. At least 8,000 Indians will die on the way.|
|1835 - 1842||SECOND SEMINOLE WAR||Second Seminole War: Following the same process as the Cherokees, the government had a minority of Seminoles sign the Treaty of Payne Landing (1832), which required them to leave their lands within three years. In 1835, the American army was sent to enforce this treaty. At the height of the war, 10,000 regulars and 30,000 militia clashed with 5,000 warriors who were engaged in a war of ambushes and coups, and American casualties amounted to 1,500 men.|
|1855 - 1858||THIRD WAR SEMINOLE||Clashes took place in 1855 between Americans and about 200 Seminoles remained in Florida.|
|1860 - 1864||WAR NAVAJO||Following various clashes in the New Mexico Territory between the Navajos and the federal troops, the Navajos went to Kit Carson, who had their property destroyed and transported to Bosque Redondo, Arizona. It is the Navajo Long March : 8,000 Navajos are 620 km on foot. After four years of undernutrition, they are allowed to return to their lands.|
|1860||WAR OF THE PAIUTES||After a harsh winter, the 6,000 Païutes of Nevada decided to attack the American settlers, who were blamed for their misfortune for cutting too many trees.|
|JULY 1, 1862||The Pacific Railway Act is signed by Abraham Lincoln, authorizing the construction of the first transcontinental railway line. Hunters (Buffalo Bill is the most famous) kill millions of bison heads to feed the workers.|
The Sioux War: Sioux discontent turned to revolt. The uprising of Native Americans soon spread throughout Minnesota and neighboring Dakota. If some white pioneers were killed, soon the US military will send important reinforcements to bloodthirsty Amerindian revolt. The United States Government does not deliver as promised the goods due for the purchase of land from Sioux Santees (or Dakotas) and Sioux Sisseton-Wahpeton tribes. Bursting during the Civil War, this massacre by the Sioux benefits from the lack of available enemy troops.
This war will make more than a thousand dead including more than 800 Sioux and more than 350 American settlers. Nearly two thousand Amerindians were captured. They were finally tried in mass trials by military courts. 303 were convicted of war crimes and sentenced to death. Of these convicts, 38 men were hanged in Mankato on Boxing Day in the largest mass execution in US history. Abraham Lincoln commuted the other prisoners to prison. About 1,500 Sioux are held at Fort Snelling until the spring of 1863; 130 die during their detention. The Shakopee and Medecine Bottle leaders, refugees in Canada, were kidnapped and hanged in 1863. Little Crow was also killed by a settler the same year.
|1865 - 1871||WAR OF THE PLAINS||The Sand Creek massacre scandalizes the Indian tribes. Many tribes then began hostilities, conducting scattered raids, forcing Union soldiers to park along the Oregon Trail for protection, including at Platte Bridge.|
|1872 - 1873||WAR OF THE MODOCS||The Modocs live in Northern California and Southern Oregon. They drive some raids on the first railway cars. With colonization beginning in the Lost River Valley, the settlers demanded that the Indians be moved to the Klamath and Snake Reserve, enemies of the Modocs. However, the 372 Modocs eventually settle in the reserve, which they leave in April 1869.|
|1874 - 1875||WAR OF THE RED RIVER||
It is caused by several factors: the territorial pressure of the settlers, protected by the construction of forts by the army, the Indian customs of permanent guerrilla warfare; the destruction of buffalo herds by white hunters. It takes place in the South of the Great Plains.
|1876||WAR OF BLACKS HILLS||Lt. Col. Custer announces the discovery of gold in the sacred Sioux Mountains of the Black Hills. The provoked gold rush led to clashes between Sioux, Cheyenne, and the United States Army.|
|1877||WAR OF NOSE PERCES||
The pressure of the settlers led to a first treaty delimiting the territory Nez-Percés in 1855. Treaty whose US government requests the revision in 1863, decreasing the surface of the reserve by 90%. Some chiefs, including Lawyer ( Lawyer ) sign this treaty, and go to an Idaho reserve. Five tribes refuse to be locked in a reserve, including that of Old Chief Joseph. His son, Young Chief Joseph, continues to refuse this treaty, and to maintain good relations with the Wallowa authorities. They decided in 1873 that the land occupied by the settlers had been illegally acquired, and asked them to evacuate them.
In 1876, the battle of Little Big Horn increased the pressure of the army for the Indians to be confined to their reserves. But the Nez-Percés, finding no suitable ground in the reserve in Idaho, refuse, until the ultimatum of General Oliver Howard, May 3, 1877. The remaining Nez-Percés are divided into three groups: some join the reserve, others go to the bison plains, the last group tries to escape to Canada.
|1878 - 1879||WAR OF CHEYENNES||
After the Treaty of Fort Wise, challenged by the Cheyenne for corruption, in the Gold Rush of Pikes Peak, Colorado, the Cheyenne were victims in 1864 of the Sand Creek massacre during which the Colorado militia killed 150 Cheyennes, including at least 50 civilians. Early in the morning of November 27, 1868 the Battle of Washita River began when US Army Lieutenant-Colonel George Armstrong Custer led the 7th Cavalry in the attack of a gang of Cheyenne-led raids. the Black Kettle chef. 148 Cheyennes were killed, including about 20 women and children. The Northern Cheyenne and some Southern Cheyenne participated in the Battle of Little Bighorn (June 25, 1876). With the Lakota and a small band of Arapahos, they annihilated George Armstrong Custer and his contingent near the Little Bighorn River. The population of the Cheyenne, Lakotas and Arapahos camp near the battle site is estimated at about 6,000 (including 1,500 warriors); which would make it the largest Amerindian gathering in North America before the generalization of the reserves.
After the Battle of Little Bighorn, attempts by the US Army to capture the Cheyenne intensified. A group of 972 Cheyenne were deported to the Indian Territories of Oklahoma in 1877. There, the living conditions were terrible, the Cheyenne of the North were not accustomed to the climate, and soon many were suffering from malaria. In 1878, the two main leaders, Little Wolf and Morning Star (Dull Knife), called for the release of the Cheyenne so that they could return to the north. In the same year, a group of about 350 Cheyenne left the Indian Territories north, led by these two chiefs. Army soldiers and civilian volunteers, estimated at a total of 13,000, were quickly pursuing them. The band split quickly into two groups. The group led by Little Wolf returned to Montana. The Morning Star band was captured and escorted to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, where they were sequestered. They were ordered to return to Oklahoma, which they quickly and firmly refused. The conditions became more and more difficult at the end of 1878, and soon the Cheyenne were confined to their quarters, without food, water or heating.
In January 1879, Morning Star and his companions escaped from Fort Robinson. Most were shot while fleeing the fort. An estimated 50 survivors, who joined the other northern Cheyenne in Montana. Thanks to their determination and sacrifice, the Northern Cheyenne have earned the right to stay in the North near the Black Hills. In 1884, by order of the executive, a reserve for the Northern Cheyenne was established in southeastern Montana. This reserve was extended in 1890 to extend from the Crow Reserve in the west to the Tongue River in the east.
|1878||WAR OF BANNOCKS|
|1879||Revolt of the Apaches Mimbres led by Victorio. Nearly 400 settlers and soldiers are killed.|
|1880||Victorio is killed in Mexico and his group decimated.|
|1886||Geronimo, the last apache chief to resist the deportation of his family to a reserve, surrendered to General Miles.|
|FEBRUARY 8, 1887||Vote of the General Allotment Act or Dawes Severalty Act by Congress, authorizing the President to sell Indian lands to individuals in small parcels. This subdivision is amplified by the Burke Act of 1906. It aims to suppress collective ownership of land, and to turn Indians into farmers. The rest is distributed to the settlers, and Oklahoma becomes a state in 1907.|
|JANUARY 1889||The wan shaman Wovoka has a vision, which inspires the Dance of spirits. The message: "let the big spirit go" is interpreted as a call to revolt or as a call to fatalism.|
|APRIL 1889||Under the General Allotment Act , the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes, where the Cherokee, Seminole, Creole, Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians were deported in the 1830s, is open to settlers.|
|DECEMBER 15, 1890||Sitting Bull, Sioux chief, killed during his preventive arrest (for fear of a revolt sparked by the Spirit Dance ).|
|DECEMBER 29, 1890||massacre of Wounded Knee, massacre of 250 Sioux miniconjous Indians at Wounded Knee Creek, including 130 civilians and Chief Big Foot, by 7th Cavalry soldiers ; 25 Americans are killed, some victims of friendly fire.|
|1896||At the census, the Indians are only 250,000.|
Last edited: 11/05/2018