citizenship and between two wars
|Congress granted citizenship to honorably discharged Indian veterans in 1919 (Law of 6 November 1919, 41 Stat.L. 350). Five years later, citizenship was extended to all native-born Indians (Law of June 2, 1924, 43 Stat.L. 253), and in 1928 Indians became for the first time a factor in politics. presidential elections. War veteran Sylvester Long Lance went on the country road with Hoover, whose running candidate was an Indian Kaw, Charles Curtis.|
In the aftermath of the war, veterans of the Grand River Reserve organized themselves politically to help eliminate the traditional Six Nations' hereditary chiefs system, which they claimed had not supported them and would not had not supported their families during the war. Their goal, which they achieved in 1924, was to implement governance by elected band councils, as authorized by the Indian Act at that time.
Complications of land ownership, both on and off reserves, make it virtually impossible for Indian veterans to obtain loans for recovery. Allegations that returning soldiers are emancipated against their will (thus losing their status as Status Indians) and denied benefits under the War Veterans Allowance Act will further disaffect Aboriginal veterans. in the 1920s and 1930s.
During the interwar period (between 1919 and 1939), no account of the Great War was complete without saluting the bravery of the Indians of Canada in the war. Camaraderie ties transcend cultural boundaries. The Royal Canadian Legion recognizes that Aboriginal veterans are treated unfairly and pass resolutions calling for equal benefits for Status Indians. In 1936, government policies were reviewed to reflect these recommendations.
|After the armistice, the popular press in the United States questioned the lack of an appropriate "tribute" to Indian war efforts and noted that Canadian Indians had obtained the right to vote in recognition of war service. Accompanied by Omaha lawyer, Thomas Sloan, and businessman Snohomish Thomas Bishop, Joseph Dixon launched a campaign for citizenship in Congress.
The war also had a lasting cultural impact on the life of the reserves. After the Red Cross, the American Legion became one of the first non-Indian organizations to settle in India. Henry Tallman, who survived a year of fighting in France with the 1st Division, organized the first Navajo Legion post with twenty-four members and was a delegate to the 1930 Legion Convention in Boston. Joe Pocantico of Pine Ridge, a recipient of the French War Cross and the Distinguished Service Cross, "put on his war hat and suit" to support the Legion's movements. Tribal leaders made patriotic speeches at tribal fairs, and powwows and funerals began to combine American flags with traditional symbols. Chauncey Eaglehorn, who fell at Chateau Thierry, was buried on the Rosebud Reserve in an elaborate ceremony including Indian soldiers, scouts, an episcopal service, and a teepee camp of some five thousand Sioux. Richard Blue Earth and Albert Grass were buried at Standing Rock in a mixture of American Legion ceremonies and traditional ceremonies.
There is an unknown fact about the return of the Indian veterans after the Great War, the refusal of the ancients to grant them the status of warrior. In fact, they existed during the 1920s as a relationship of authority between former warriors and new veterans.
AB Welch will cite a special case: "About a dozen old warriors began to dance, and at least three young men, wounded in France, took part in the dance for the first time. Later in the evening, these young men were told that they had won the right to enter the dance at any time, but that they first had to prove that they had been wounded in action.
This reminder of the principles makes it possible to reaffirm the control of elders over young people. The exploit story is no longer used to publicly validate a status by other warriors, because the feat was rarely performed in the presence of members of the tribe, his story can no longer be verified ; despite the medals and injuries received, sometimes at the cost of an amputated limb. At Bullhead, the elders would have even refused to recognize the exploits of the veterans of the Great War, because they would have been accomplished at a distance and not in hand-to-hand combat.
Sam Kenoi, Apache Chiricahua, son of a scout of the American Army takes advantage of the great war to reproduce the paternal engagement. He will fight after the war for the recognition and the granting of pension to the scouts. He will be best known for his political struggle against Geronimo's nephew, Asa Daklugie, who blames the deportation of his people for the commitment of the Apache Scouts. Conversely, Sam Kenoi will blame his political enemies Apache for not having the courage to engage and go to battle.
In addition to recognition by governments and veterans' organizations, Native American veterans must face some contempt from their own people. But all will not be bad for them, some like Pegahmagabow Francis or Onondeyoh Loft in Canada will experience political careers. Soldiers like Joseph Joe Clark will continue their military service, in this case to reach the rank of admiral of the Navy 40 years later; or Zahn Francis Benjamin who, during his lifetime, was an interpreter for government officials, played in movies and was a chief tribal judge.