During the First World War, one of the great benefits of enlisting Indians was their role as messengers and switchboard operators. Their languages were unintelligible to the enemy. In the 142nd regiment alone, there were 26 different Indian languages. The idea PROVINT one of his officers who asked two choctaws transmit orders in their own languages . The test was so successful that such operator operators appeared everywhere on the forehead : Comanche , Cheyenne, Cree , Osage Lakota and transmit orders in their original languages.
A big gun = artillerie
Tribe = regiment
Grain of corn = battalion
Stone = grenade
Bad air = gaz
Scalps = casualties
Many scout = patrol
The army recruited about 55 Indians for coding in Europe and nearly 300 Navajo in the Pacific.
In Europe, the Signal Corps of the Army first used the Comanches to transmit messages. But Hitler was aware of the use of Indian coders during the first war. He sent a team of German anthropologist America to learn as much as possible Indian languages before the outbreak of war. But the mission failed, since there were more than 300 different Indian languages has the time. At the height of the war, Indians USD19 different tribes used as encoder.
Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary who grew up on a Navajo reservation , proposed the idea to the Marine Corps to use the Navajo language to transmit messages based on the history of the Comanche code talkers during the first world war . Impressed by the demonstration, the Marine Corps authorized a pilot project with 29 Navajo spread over the battlefields of the Pacific. After many successes, the Marine Corps officially authorized the program code talkers .
On 3600 Navajo joined the army , serving about 400 as code talkers .
Built on the success of the Choctaw code during the first World War , the U.S. military developed mass Amerindian coding. Many nations participated in the program : Hopi , Comanche , Cherokee, Chippewa , Navajo .
Skeptical to the effectiveness of this system , the U.S. State Staff advocated a test between the machine and walrus Navajo encoders. Radios were placed at more than 400 meters , it took 1 minute to Navajo to transmit and decode the message , and over an hour for the machine!
The biggest problem was the lack of Navajo words to designate certain military terms , more than 450 words had no equivalent in Navajo .
In 1942, the Navajo Joe Kieyoomia was captured by the Japanese in the Philippines. Survivor of the Bataan death march , the kidnappers asked him to translate radio messages . Untrained for the code, Kieyoomia explained that the message had no meaning for him , he was tortured by the Japanese.
If the code was a simple translation of the Navajo would Kieyoomia could translate the message and the Japanese have exploited the messages sent in order to win the war.
The code talkers received no recognition until 1968, when history was made public for the first time . In 1982 , President Ronald Reagan was awarded a certificate of recognition to the code talkers and established August 14 '' day Navajo Code Talkers '' .
December 21, 2000 , President Bill Clinton signed a law that awarded the Gold Medal of the Congress the first 29 Navajo code talker in World War II , and the silver medal in 300 other encoders.
On 17 September 2007, 18 Choctaw code talker received the medal value of Texas posthumously for their service during World War II .
November 15, 2008, President George W Bush passed a law to restore the Congressional Gold Medal to all who served Code Talkers during the first and second world war.
IT IS STILL HARD TO FIND ANY INFORMATION ON CODES Talkers , BUT IT SURE 18 NATIONS have contributed to the war effort THROUGH THEIR CODE Talkers DURING THE TWO WORLD WARS :
- YANKTON SIOUX
- MUSCOGEE SEMINOLE
- SAC AND FOX
- SIOUX LAKOTA
- SIOUX DAKOTA