Native American Veteran and Canadian aboriginal veteran List.


1939 - 1945


On 10 September 1939 , the Parliament of Canada declared war on Nazi Germany. Hitler's armies invaded Poland and the leaders of the Western world are finding that appeasement is no longer viable . We must counter the Nazi aggression , and Canada can not remain on the sidelines of another great war in which Great Britain is involved. However, the Prime Minister , William Lyon Mackenzie King, reluctant to commit themselves fully . Initially, the war effort in Canada will be " limited liability ." A small contingent of one division was sent overseas , and the government is carrying the rest of his force to the Air Training Plan of the British Commonwealth and the preparation for war production. Terrible events are quick to put Canada into the conflict , and for six painful years , Canadians invest their energies in a fight to protect and maintain the democratic ideals of the West. At the end of the war, out of a population of only 11 million people, more than one million Canadians have served in the military.

Despite the discontent expressed by Aboriginal veterans during the inter -war years , a wave of patriotism undeniable blowing across Canada after the outbreak of the Second World War. When the German army invaded successively Denmark, Norway , Holland, Belgium and France in May and June 1940, the government is a " limited war effort " a policy of "total war ." Indigenous peoples , like all other Canadians , are called to make sacrifices and to contribute to the national crusade in order to defeat the totalitarian aggressor.


Aboriginal soldiers among the victims fell in Hong Kong and Dieppe , others fighting in Italy and Sicily.

Others escorting convoys in the Battle of the Atlantic and part of bomber crews and hunters around the world. Some take part in the D-Day landings with the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and campaigns of Normandy and Northwest Europe . War brings all Canadians who are willing to sacrifice their lives to restore peace and security in a world in turmoil .


After the Great War , the Indians in the United States has continued to enlist in the army. At least 4,000 U.S. military used just before Pearl Harbor. Immediately after the Japanese attack , the Indians enlisted massively. Half of men engageable some tribes were volunteered for service , many tribes made special war councils to prepare their members for mobilization. The Navajo Tribal Council , tena a special convention in January 1942. with its 50,000 members, the Board declared its support to the U.S. military effort and promised to remain faithful to the united states to the complete victory of their country.


At least 45 % of Navajo volunteers were refuse because of health and age , but at least 3,600 of them , or 6% of the population served the army.





So enthusiastic enrollment, some of them came with their own weapons and equipment of warriors. A Fort Defiance , volunteers remained for hours in heavy snow to sign their enrollment sheet. 900 Navajos had joined the army after the declaration of war.


The same enthusiasm was felt through all the USA: 25% of the Mescalero Apache enlisted . At the Lac Oreilles reservation in Wisconsin , 100 Chippewa in a population of 1700 people enlisted . Portage Reserve Grand sent almost all his men. Fort Peck , Montana , 131 Blackfeet . Hopi 213 men out of a population of 2205 people.


Many volunteers were rejected because of health or age . An Indian Pima plaigna unable to enlist seven times since he was 37 years old . An Arizona Indian could not enlist because of his excess weight . A Chippewa reject because no teeth : '' I want to kill them , not bite '' !


In 1942 , 99 % of eligible Army Indian men were register for the service. According to the Bureau of Indian Affairs , 24251 Indians served the army during the war and at least 20 000 people living off reserve and not register as Indians also served . In other words , at least 45,000 American Indians served during the Second World War , more than 10 % of the Indian population at the time . Again, they were volunteers over 90 %.



Most Indian soldiers were identified as white on enrollment leaves, but in the southern United States , the Indians were sent in colorful Army units with black . 3 Rappahannock Virginia received a sentence of six months in prison for refusing to refer to a black unit during their enrollment.

The reasons for volunteering to defend Canada and Britain are numerous and , as in the case of the First World War, they are as diverse as Aboriginal people are taking part. Lawrence Martin , an Ojibway from the Red Rock Indian Band in northern Ontario , has many family members who served in both world wars. His uncle was killed at Passchendaele and his father was wounded twice during the First World War. The latter told him : "If you have to go to war , do not snatch thee to thy duty . " Martin used in the Lake Superior Regiment in Europe.

Sidney Gordon , who grew up in Gordon Reserve in Saskatchewan , enlisted in the Army in April 1941. "I was single , so I told myself that this would be a good experience for me to enlist in the army," to remember Gordon . At the time, he receives a meager salary as a farm laborer . He added: " So I said a dollar and a half a day would be better than what I was making , and then I would be fed and clothed , so I 've been thinking . " Modest Russell , a member of the Cowichan band who served during World War II , recalls being drafted into the army because of his experience in residential school Coqualeetza Sardis , British Columbia " I heard some employees talking about a family member or loved ones who were killed in the bombings in London , Scotland and brothers and cousins who were killed in Africa. " His experience of life at the school had prepared the military :

We we align every morning for everything: breakfast, lunch, dinner , church [ ... ] So when I went into the army, it was nothing new to me , I quickly integrated and easier than some of the whites who came to the city and had no idea what the military discipline , you know. So I was a little prepared . I left school at 16 and worked a few years [ ... ] When I was 18, instead of going to work [ ... ] in the forest industry [ ... ] I introduced myself to the service of recruitment and I joined .

Like others, he enlisted in patriotic spirit , with a desire to help defeat the Germans, he wants to "do his part ." His father was upset. Modest said: " He told me I know what you did and it does not concern you . If the war was going on in Canada, I understand that you do what you did and you help your country , but the war is happening in Europe is a European war , you have nothing to do with it , it you do not look and I do not approve of what you did. I told him it was too late , I had sworn that I could not go back . " Overseas , Modest go to the front with the Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment, who will fight in the mountains , vineyards and small towns of Italy.


For some Aboriginal soldiers , military service is an adventure, an opportunity to show their loyalty to the King and Queen . Chief Walking Eagle , Rocky Mountain House , Alberta , embodies this sentiment when he said : "Every Indian in Canada will fight for King George . " For others, it is an opportunity to continue the tradition of warrior or release of suffocating climate in the reserves. For a large number of recruits hopeful , military service is a chance to escape unemployment . The depression of the 1930s wreaked havoc in many reserve communities and , like other Canadians , Aboriginal people want to provide for their families by all means possible. Become a soldier provides a good salary, plus an allowance for dependents . After the outbreak of the war, and many enthusiastic volunteers are queues for enrollment are growing.

At the beginning of the war, the Royal Canadian Navy , Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force to show selective candidates for enlistment. The Army is seeking candidates healthy and meeting minimum requirements for education. Across the country, there are many more volunteers than elected , and racial barriers to Aboriginal participation that were evident during the First World War still exist. Overall , Aboriginal people have a much lower level of education than most other Canadians, which , at the beginning of the war, prevent many enlist. The incidence of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases among indigenous people is much higher than that observed in non-Aboriginal communities. A report by the Division of Indian Affairs found that cases of tuberculosis among the Indians during the war are " ten times higher than those observed among the white population." In fact, a Deputy Superintendent of medical notes that it is possible to determine the health of the community in a reserve based on the number of recruits who are coming . Other barriers to the recruitment of Aboriginal people will be added , apparently motivated by individual preferences. Thus, in some areas , will there be local recruitment officers hesitate to select candidates among Aboriginal volunteers, despite glowing letters from Ottawa extolling the virtues of Aboriginal people. In some cases, these denials stem from misconceptions that Aboriginal recruits can withstand the rigors of the training program and the confinement in the barracks.

The Royal Canadian Navy is even more selective than the Army in its recruitment policy . According to the policy in effect at the beginning of the war , only one " pure European descent and white 'may be allowed in the Navy. In fact, this policy prevents Aboriginal participation. This discriminatory policy is for three reasons outlined in a report by the commander of the Pacific coast , namely that the cramped space does not lend itself to a positive interaction between races and that Aboriginal access to alcohol is struck by legal restrictions ( the Navy is the only service while still distribute an allowance of grog to his troops ), the Indians should have separate mess . The Canadian government continues this policy until 12 March 1943. Note, however, that this policy is not applied absolutely, since the 1942-1943 report of Indian Affairs says that the Navy already has nine Indians in its ranks.



The Royal Canadian Air Force applies high standards of education and , moreover, does not accept ethnic origin candidates. The RCAF is closely linked to its British counterpart , the Royal Air Force , it is supposed to follow the same code of conduct and policies themselves. Before the war, the current rule speaks not only of "pure European descent" , but precisely as a " son of parents who are both [ ... ] British subjects ." In 1939 , the correspondence of the Head of Staff of the Air Acting shows that the Amerindians are the exception to this rule. Despite this apparent openness , the representation of Aboriginal people in the air force is much lower than it is in the infantry. To become a pilot , candidates must first have obtained their "junior license " that is to say have been four or five years of secondary school ( Grade 11 or 12 ) , which , for all practical purposes , virtually eliminates all Aboriginal candidates, when we know that at the time , more than 75 percent . 100 Aboriginal people in Canada have a level of education which does not exceed the third year. Thus the ratio of Indian Affairs 1942-1943 reported only 29 Indian soldiers in the CRA. However , men like David Moses , a Delaware Indian Ohsweken who studied agriculture at the University of Guelph before the war, serving with the RCAF. During the last year of the war , Moses is in Iceland , where he flew a Consolidated Canso flying boat in convoy mission in search of German submarines , the U -boat.


If praiseworthy that initial participation , McGill noted later that in 1942 , the participation rate is not as high as it was during the First World War. Aboriginal men and women are attracted paying jobs war industries , offered off-reserve. We still enrolled in all provinces of Canada and the Annual Report of 1942 indicates an increase in enrollments , the number of which rose to 1801 . But in mid-1943 , the number of Indian military increases , rising successively to 2383 , then to 2603 in 1944. At the end of the war, the official report of the Division of Indian Affairs indicates that 3090 Indians (2.4 p. 100 of 946,125 registered Indians counted in the Canadian census ) participated in the war. As in the case of the First World War, the number of Aboriginal men is undoubtedly higher , since non-status Indians and Metis are excluded from this calculation.



Just as during the First World War, the Indian did face many stereotypes as most whites had never met in person indians .

The problem was already starting with their names. When Charles Kills The Enemy ( kill enemies in French ) wanted to engage the préposer repeatedly asked his real name. It was a long way to Kills the enemy to prove he was serious and that this was his real name .


Another famous case is that of Get Shot With Two Arrows ( was wounded by two arrows). Wounded in action , when the nurse read the file at the hospital , she asked him how he could do to be injured by two arrows . '' Get Shot With Two Arrows '' explained that he was not of his injury but rather the name.


Very often , the Indians were nicknamed Chief Geronimo or by their brother in arms . The Indians felt little offense on these nicknames, it was for them to ignorance more than racism , as some veterans will report on later this mark a respect from whites that included unclear why the Indians used proudly as their former enemies.


The biggest cultural difference between white and Indian found especially in crafts and ceremonies. Very often , the Indians were wearing items such as feathers, medicine bag , sweetgrass ... Returned to the country , veterans burned most of these objects , and purifying their souls and their minds.


These objects also mark the respect of the enemy. When Frankie Redbone , a Kiowa, was captured in 1944 , the Germans asked him to remove all his belongings on the table. The German guard noticed a small medicine bag in the pile and asked Redbone what it was . '' Indian '' said Redbone Medicine . The guard carried all goods Redbone , except medicine bag , hoping that it will help Redbone during his captivity ... that lasted eight months without incident.


In the Pacific , several ceremonies were carried out by the Indians present , and very often , curiosity once passed, the white soldiers were invited to participated . According to reports at the time, the ceremonies were conducted by the Apache , Comanche, Crow, Kiowa, Navajo , Pima and Pueblo soldiers. We met many other dance devil, eagle dance , the hoop dance , war dance and singing mountains.

On their return from the war , the Indians returned to a miserable life. During the winter of 1947-1948 , a newspaper noted the dire economic situation of the Navajo Nation . Most people living on less than $ 1,000 per year , the infant mortality rate was seven times greater than normal and only 1 in 5 children attended school .


After the war, the Indians were facing an uncertain future, many left the reserves in the hope of finding work .

The rapid integration of Indians into white society became a vital goal for the government. The Indians of the time saw their culture disappear again and try to survive in the post-war world .



Many Aboriginal veterans emphasize they want one thing more than anything: their contribution is recognized. They participated in the national war effort from 1914 to 1919 and from 1939 to 1945. They fought as equals alongside their comrades from all segments of Canadian society. They returned home conscious of not being citizens "second class" and animated by the ideals of democracy, freedom and equality for which so many Canadians have fought and died. Sailors, soldiers and airmen indigenous continue to serve their country as the "new world order" glimpsed in 1945 failed to bring the promised peace.

In the middle of 1940, the Allied situation deteriorating due to the fall of France and the Netherlands, the Canadian government runs back to the thorny issue of conscription. At the end of the First World War, the Order in Council PC 111 Indians were excluded from compulsory service overseas territories. As this decree is revoked before the outbreak of the Second World War, it will again discuss the issue. Parliament adopted the Law on National Resources Mobilization (NRMA) June 21, 1940 in order to intensify the war effort in Canada. The Act requires Canadians to register for the federal government to manage more efficiently the resources of the country, but provides assurance to Canadians that conscription be used exclusively to defend the country.


However, many Aboriginal leaders and councils send to Ottawa letters and petitions to express their concern about the enrollment and compulsory military service. The defense of the country is not in question , almost all indigenous communities are indeed willing to contribute to the war effort . The choice to serve overseas is a matter of principle. In Alberta, Peigan chief and his advisers " are of the opinion that the Indians should not be liable for military service ," says the Indian agent in October 1940 , " on the grounds that they are native-born Canadians and the treaties they have signed the commitment to settle, lay down their arms and live in peace with the whites . " Many tribal councils Northwestern Ontario also adopted resolutions denouncing conscription and demand that their Indian Agent "use all his influence and stop all functions of government." For their part, the Six Nations, Brantford , Ontario "strongly protest against the imposition of 30 days of military training for young men in the reserve." Before the economic disruption created this short duty cycle , it will be four months at first , then keep the same 100,000 men under arms until the end of the war, Canada was spent a "limited" to a policy of "total war" war effort.

The government promises to the Indians - and the provisions of the NRMA give them insurance - most of Registered Indians will not be sent abroad , and many (Indian ) fold the inner conscription. Some resist the application of the Act by refusing to submit to medical examinations or fleeing the police launched their heels , protest actions which are becoming more common in the wake of a national plebiscite held April 27, 1942 which releases the federal government of its obligation not to use conscripts to defend the country . Bill 80 authorizes the conscription for overseas service as needed. The First Nations leaders in this regard raise the issue of fairness. "Why should we be asked to go? " Questioned the leaders of the People reserve the Blood , Alberta. These emphasize that as wards of the government does not have the right to vote, they should not have to " submit like children and take responsibility as well as those who are lucky enough to be citizens fledged and subjects of the King . " Only their emancipation would remedy this injustice. The government responds that the Indians are forced to conscription as all other Canadians male. In Quebec , an organization of human rights known as the " Protection Committee " argues that Aboriginal Status Indians are exempt from serving as conscripts , arguing that the lower status Indians under the Indian Act and sovereignty ( as nations ) under the Royal Proclamation of 1763. This will result in a clash between police and Aboriginal residents who oppose conscription , with the exception of Caughnawaga ( Kahnawake ) near Montreal . In northern Ontario reserve communities plead exemption by invoking the terms of the Robinson- Huron and Robinson- Superior 1850. When multiple opponents who refused to register call the courts, the Department of Justice says that "the Indians , being British subjects , must comply with the provisions of Article 3 of the Regulations of 1940 National War Services (recruits ) . " This will be the official position of the government during the war.


In practice, the application of the NRMA proves almost impossible , especially in remote areas. The case of Edward Cardinal, Whitecourt , Alberta, illustrates the difficulties faced by agents recording. Where a notice ordering Cardinal to undergo a medical examination before his military training is returned intact to the sender , the agent at the Edmonton registration inquires to the postmaster of the reason for this return. This explains why Cardinal lives in an area located 12 miles north of Whitecourt and it goes picking his mail twice a year. Other Indians who practice hunting, fishing and trapping are more difficult to reach and agent registration recognizes that in many cases , it is " virtually impossible" to find them . For example, in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia , Aboriginal people tend to treat reviews with "apparent indifference " as the agent registration Vancouver. All this makes it very difficult to administer and, therefore , the government sets standards with little coherence to Aboriginal men. In addition, due to language barriers and persistent health problems in many reserves, a large number of status Indians who register will never have to use , so the efforts of conscription for Aboriginal give results more limited.




After Japan's surprise attack against Pearl Harbor in December 1941 , residents of the West Coast need to be protected in case of attack. To this end , the body of Pacific Coast Militia Rangers are created in British Columbia . The volunteer citizen-soldiers who are part of helping to defend the "province of the Pacific" by patrolling their community , noting any situation that seems suspicious and using guerrilla tactics in case of enemy invasion . In 1943, 15,000 British Columbians and Yukoners are in the Rangers , Dawson islands of the Queen Charlotte Islands and to the U.S. border . Demographic and geographic realities of remote coastal areas are Aboriginal Rangers "natural." As reported by the Vancouver Sun in its issue of March 6, 1942 : "The Indians , who know the evil mapped trails are offered the chance to do heroic work in defense of the province [ ... ] , they occupy with intelligence and sagacity limits and natural barriers , they make impregnable against the Japanese threat. " The Pacific Coast Militia Rangers give Aboriginal people in British Columbia the chance to work in the defense of their communities while continuing their work and traditional activities. They make a vital contribution in several areas , especially in the very long - and vulnerable - the Pacific coast , where they serve as guides and scouts from active duty soldiers . Members of indigenous communities provide important operational information to military forces, which they report unusual activities or events ( including the identification of Japanese incendiary balloons ) to the end of the war in September 1945 .




Aboriginal women are also used and they noted the camaraderie that transcends ethnic barriers. Dorothy Asquith, a Métis who served in the Women's Auxiliary ARC writes :


Discrimination? Everyone was so involved in everything around the war that nobody had time for such pettiness . I do not think anyone cared about the skin color of his comrades , especially among men who were fighting. Cousins of mine told me : " Who could stop at the skin color of others? We were all so happy to find a place to put us away , nobody cared who was with you . We were there together , two lives. That's what I think , everything was too serious to think about things so unimportant .

P. Gayle McKenzie and Ginny Belcourt Todd interviewed some indigenous military and recorded their memories in Our Women in Uniform. These women say they have enrolled for reasons that are little different from those typically evoked Aboriginal male. Many women talk about the balance of 65 cents per day ( less than the male recruits ), the opportunity to travel and patriotism. Women receive training in non-traditional jobs, but their primary role is one of support. The motto of the Women's Auxiliary of the Royal Canadian Air Force : "We serve that men could fly ." In the Women's Division of the Canadian Army , indigenous women learn how to provide first aid to exercise the functions of military administration and to perform tasks of auto mechanics. In 1943 , 16 of the 1 801 indigenous Canadian soldiers are women. A government document from 1950 indicates that 72 Indian Canadian registrants served overseas during the wars, it is estimated that another 800 have served in the United States .



The direct contribution of Aboriginal people to the war effort by military service during the war is growing , as was the case during the First World War. In the Annual Report of the Division of Indian Affairs for the year 1940, the Director HW McGill observes :

Always loyal , [ Indian communities ] were quick to offer their help in men money. At the end of the fiscal year, a hundred Indians had enlisted and contributions of Indians to the Red Cross and other funds totaling more than $ 1,300 .


65000 Indians in the U.S. , 20 % of the population served on the home front and the Indian nations invested more than $ 50 million in war bonds and helps the Red Cross. Not to mention the land given to the government to agriculture and prison camps.


Domestically , the contributions go beyond military service. As was the case during the First World War , women's clubs and charitable community groups donate and raise funds for the Red Cross and other relief agencies war. At the end of 1945, the Indian bands in Canada have officially returned 23 $ 596.71 . A note found in the records of Indian Affairs reveals that many donations are made directly to local organizations and that "substantial gifts of furs, clothing and other items are made , the value of silver was not calculated ". A particular community received international recognition for its support of children orphaned as a result of air raids on London. In 1941, the Indians of Old Crow , Yukon , send $ 432.30 for the purchase of boots and clothing for these children. The British press said their generosity and community of Old Crow continues to support various war funds in subsequent years .

During the Battle of Midway in June 1942, Japan bombed and invaded the islands of Attu and Kiska in the Aleutian chain.

On Attu, Mr. and Mrs. Jones, an employee of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, were faced with the invasion with the local Indian population.

55 Aleut living on the island were captured and sent to labor camps in Japan, only 24 survived the war.


To protect the other Aleuts on the other islands, the government ordered the evacuation of all residents to camps built in Alaska and Washington State.

More than 850 Indian Aleuts were forced to evacuate the islands and could carry the bare minimum. The army was loaded to provide clothing and food to the prisoners, but failed in his mission. The Aleuts lived in poor conditions, lacking food. Many of the Aleuts died in the camps. The survivors returned home after the war, but they discovered that their houses had been used by the soldiers of the U.S. Army and most of their belongings were destroyed by the soldiers in their absence.



One of the icons of the Second World War is the cartoonist Bill Mauldin who served in the 45th Division .

Mauldin published from 1940 to 1945 cartoons in magazines for soldiers at the front .

It owes its fame to its comics WWII featuring two archetypes of the American soldier , " Willie and Joe " grumpy and disheveled soldiers who stoically endure the pains and dangers of the front. These drawings experienced tremendous popularity in the U.S. Army , both in the United States or the overseas theaters of operation .

Few players actually knew that the famous Willie was based on Rayson Billey , Indian Choctaw from Keota , Oklahoma. Billey was Sergeant Mauldin .

Mauldin said of his sergeant that he should be one of its soldiers comics. '' Ray is an old guy and a good guy. He kills people because he must do , it is war . It must do but unintentionally. Killing a man brings him nothing, take a step forward on the ground in the direction of Berlin one step closer to the end of the war. There can not be more humane and wise character. This is literally my guru . ''




For safety reasons, it was decided during the 2nd World to intern Japanese Americans war. First prison camp US-Japan was built on the Colorado River Indian Reservation in Arizona. In total, there existed 3.

  Nearly 7,500 Japanese were interned in the camp.

The occupied land would be used for a period of 4 to 6 years and went to the nations after the war ... which ultimately became the land reserved to the army and were never rendered.


For Hitler and his propagandists Amerindians were a useful resource against the United States in case of war . He counted on the evil to be Indian to turn against the U.S. government in favor of Nazism. In his message , the Nazis did install huge radio antenna to join the Indian communities. In 1938 , Berlin granted citizen Aryan was a descendant Sioux and German , hoping to give the favor of the Sioux people. The Nazis went to invent the hypothesis that ancient Germanic people set foot in America and were integrated into the Indian nations , which automatically gave the Aryan citizenship to all Native Americans.

In 1933, a pro- Nazi group appears in the United States , the gray shirts . The failure of U.S. policy and Nazi propaganda will join thousands of Indians in this organization. With donations from the gray shirts , bottom Germano American and American Nationalist Confederation , weapons quickly buy and distribute the reserves. In 1938 , the FBI will monitor the Indian communities in California , New Mexico , Oklahoma and even the Yaquis in Mexico. The U.S. government feared a general uprising Native USA.

At the beginning of the 2nd World War, the American Indian Foundation disclaims any banned Nazi and status of Indian nations and all members join the Nazi organizations American ideology. Its official, officially considers the members of these clubs as enemies of the American nation. Representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs will point out to the Government that most Indians are against the Nazis and ready to serve their country ideas.

With the progress of the war in Europe and the fall of France , Belgium and Luxembourg , as a verbal war between the U.S. Native American pro- Nazi and pro , but the Bureau of Indian Affairs found that the Nazi sections USA see their influence diminish rapidly in the reserves.

With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the pro- Nazi groups Indians disappear completely and , ironically , the weapons provided to Indians by these groups serve a Native American in the U.S. National Guard during World War 2nd . Hitler's dream of conquering the U.S. through the Indians had collapsed .

The Swastika was a pattern used by Native Americans for thousands of years. He was found on archaeological sites in Ohio and Mississippi. It was often used in religious ceremonies in cultures of the South Eastern United States.

To the Hopi it represented one of its clans, among the Navajo was a symbol of their legend. We also find traces of the Indians of Saskatchewan in Canada and in Kuna in Panama.

In general, the Swastika was the creation of the world and the four cardinal points.

In 1930, the Kuna of Panama obtenèrent political independence and flags bore the symbol of the swastika . The flag was changed in 1942 to get away from the Nazi symbol.

Dice the American declaration of war in 1941, the Indian nations of the South East of the United States signed a joint statement to the destruction of all forms of Swastika in their culture.