|US CIVIL WAR|
|APRIL 12ND, 1861 - APRIL 9TH, 1865|
15 000 NATIVE AMERICANS IN CONFEDERATE ARMY.
4 000 NATIVE AMERICANS IN UNION ARMY.
TRIBES INVOLVED IN THE WAR
At least 19,000 of them served on land and in the seas, and were present in the largest battles. It was Ely S Parker who received the surrender of Confederate leader Robert E Lee, while another Confederate General Stand Watie, Cherokee Indian, refused the defeat of the south for another two months.
At least 15,000 American Indians served the Southern cause , mainly the five civilized tribes of Florida : Cherokee, Chickasaw , Choctaw, Creek and Seminole .
For the Confederates, Indians were an elite force very important. Recruiters actively worked on the enlistment of members of its nations , most landowners practicing slavery. The promise of the Confederates was tempting , in case of victory , Florida and the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma ) would become two Indian states have their own representatives in Congress . In addition, the freed slaves , forming Band of Indians '' '' Black Seminoles would be recognized as an Indian nation and will be entitled to his own land.
In July 1861, General Albert Pike formed a Southerner first full regiment of Creek Indian Territory native Southerner for the cause . In November, he had managed to form four complete regiments of Native Americans.
FIGHT FOR THE NORTH CAUSE
At least 4,000 Indians served the North, mainly in the infantry. Unlike Indian Southerners , they did not form their own regiment , and their losses were the highest of the war. For example, on 135 Oneida Wisconsin , only 55 returned home , a mortality rate of nearly 41% !
The lack of respect for Indian soldiers and the protection of their property by whites , drove many soldiers Indian desertion . As an example , when the order was given to an Indian regiment to capture and destroy the capital Cherokee Indian Territory , an entire regiment refused the order and deserted the battlefield .
ARMY OF NORTH
- 1st Regiment Indian Home Guard
- 2nd Regiment Indian Home Guard
- 3rd Regiment Indian Home Guard
- 4th Regiment Indian Home Guard
ARMY OF SOUTH
- Cherokee: 11 Infantry Regiment, 1 unit of Cavalry, Artillery Unit 1.
- Creek: three regiments of infantry, one cavalry unit.
- Seminole: 2 Infantry Regiments.
- Chickasaw: four regiments of infantry, one cavalry unit.
- Choctaw: seven regiments of infantry, one cavalry unit.
- Osage: 1 Infantry Regiment.
Which led them to unite their fortunes with those of
Confederate States of America .
When circumstances beyond their control compel one people to sever the ties that have long existed between them and another state or confederacy , and to contract new alliances and establish new relations for the security of their rights and freedoms, it is good they should publicly declare the reasons by which their action is justified .
The Cherokee people had its origin in the South, its institutions are similar to those of the Southern States , and the same interests. Long accepted the protection of the United States of America under contract with them treaties of alliance and friendship, and are left to a large extent , governed by their law .
In peace and war, they were faithful to their commitments with the United States. With great difficulty and injustice, they have no recourse other than solicitations and arguments for redress. Loyal and obedient to the laws and provisions of their treaties , they served under the flag of the United States have shared common dangers , and are entitled to a share in the common glory , for the blood that has been shed on freely the battlefield .
When disagreements between the states of North and South led to a separation of the State of the Union , they watched the progress of events with anxiety and dismay . Although institutions and the contiguity of their territory in the United States of Arkansas , Texas and Missouri were the cause of the secession of the States necessarily their own cause, their treaties had been made with the United States , and they felt the greatest reluctance , even in appearance to violate their commitments.
Aware that they were a few people compared to one of the warring parties , and that their country could without considerable force be easily invaded and devastated and desolation and ruin be the result if they took up arms for both parties, their determined no other authorities was compatible with the imperatives of prudence or could ensure the safety of their people and immunity against the horrors of war by an enemy invader from strict neutrality , and this decision, they were supported by a majority of the nation.
At the beginning of June of the current year , the authorities of the nation have refused to enter into negotiations for an alliance with the Confederate States , and protested against the occupation of the Cherokee country by their troops , or any other breach of neutrality. No act was allowed that could be interpreted by the United States as a violation of the faith of treaties .
But Providence rules the destinies of nations , and events, by inexorable necessity , overrule the resolutions of man. Denying any intention to invade the northern states , they sought only to repel invaders from their own land and to guarantee the right to govern . They argued that the privilege claimed by the American Declaration of Independence , and that the right of Northern states to self-government is based , to change their form of government where he became a more tolerable form of security freedoms.
Throughout the Confederate States we saw this great revolution effected without violence or suspension of legislation or the closure of the courts . Military power was placed above the civil authorities. None were seized and imprisoned the mandate of arbitrary power. Any division among the missing , and the determination became unanimous that there is never any union with the northern states . Almost as one all those who were able to bear arms rushed to the defense of an invaded country , and nowhere has it been deemed necessary to compel men to serve or to enlist mercenaries offering extraordinary bonuses.
But the northern states of Cherokee people saw with horror a violation of the Constitution, all civil liberties endangered , and all the rules of civilized warfare and the dictates of common humanity and decency not taken into account . In states that continue to join the Union a military despotism has displaced the civil power and the right became silent . Freedom of expression and free thought almost a crime. The right to habeas corpus, guaranteed by the Constitution , disappeared by the signature of a Secretary of State or a general of the lower class. The mandate of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was set at naught by the military power , and the scandal of the common law, approved by a President sworn to uphold the Constitution. A full-scale war was conducted , and the huge body of troops on the ground called in the absence of any law to justify it. The humanities of war are no longer worthy to be respected. Foreign mercenaries and the scum of the cities and prison inmates were recruited and organized into regiments and brigades were sent to the southern states to help subdue a people struggling for freedom, burning , looting , and the last to commit outrages on women, while the heels of armed tyranny walked on Maryland and Missouri, and men were detained on suspicion and without due process of law in prisons, forts, ships, and even women were imprisoned by the arbitrary order of a President and cabinet ministers , while the press ceased to be free, the publication of newspapers was suspended , the officers and men taken prisoner battle were allowed to remain in captivity by the refusal of the government to agree to an exchange of prisoners as they left their dead on more than one battlefield that had witnessed their defeat to be buried and wounded of be treated by the hands of the South.
Whatever the cause of the Cherokee people in the past , they feel that their interests and destinies are inextricably linked to those of the South. The current war is a war of greed North and fanaticism against the institution of slavery in Africa, against the commercial freedom of the South, and against the political freedom of states , and its objects are to annihilate the sovereignty of the Cherokee people etats.Le and neighbors were warned before the war began that the first object of the party now holds the powers of government of the United States would cancel the institution of slavery in all the Indian country , and make what they call a free territory and after a time a free state , and they were also warned by the fate that befell their race in Kansas, Nebraska and Oregon that one day they too would be forced to go to their country at the request of the rapacity of the North , and simply disappeared one nationality , and with reserves of limited extent for individuals, including their people would soon be stripped by speculators , if not plundered unscrupulously by the State.
Driven by these considerations, the Cherokees , long divided and became unanimous , and their brethren , the Creeks , Seminoles , Choctaws , Chickasaws , and determined by the voice of a general convention of all the people , which was held in Tahlequah on August 21 of this year, to make common cause with the South and to share his fortune.
Maintaining the realization of this resolution into effect and achieve a treaty of alliance and friendship with the Confederate States of America Cherokee people said he was faithful and loyal to his commitments with the United States until that , by placing its security and even its national existence in imminent peril , States have released these commitments.
Threatened by a great danger , they exercise the inalienable right of self-defense, and declare themselves a free people, independent states of North America , and at war with them by their own law . Obeying the caution and to provide general safety and well -being convinced of the rectitude of their intentions and true to the obligation of duty and honor , they accept the issue thus imposed, unite their fortunes now and always with those of the Confederate States , and take up arms for the common cause , and with full confidence in the justice of the cause and with a firm reliance on Divine Providence.
Tahlequah, NC , October 28, 1861 .
THOMAS PEGG ,
President National Committee.
National Committee Clerk . .
Concurred . Adopted .
Speaker of Council.
THOMAS B. WOLFE ,
Council Clerk .