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SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
1898
The Spanish-American War was a conflict that took place in 1898 between the United States and Spain. This war illustrates the shift in the world that will operate in the twentieth century. Recall that in the nineteenth century Spain had already appeared as a colonial power in decline. She had lost all of its South American colonies , while the United States emerged as a new world power.

 

The Spanish-American War has its roots in the struggle for the independence of Cuba , then a Spanish colony. The Cuban revolt against Spanish rule dating back to 1868 , but the United States was well guarded military intervention . Cuba rebelled against the Metropole because it submitted its colony to an authoritarian regime and a heavy taxation. In 1895 , violence once again erupted , the dire economic situation in Cuba stoking revolt. However, this was largely due to the fact that the United States had imposed very high tariffs on imported sugar from Cuba , which literally strangling the economy of the island. The Spanish General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau brutally repressed Cubans. U.S. newspapers accused the Spanish authorities to practice "barbarism" in Cuba. In response to the growing unrest on the island , U.S. President William McKinley sent the battleship Maine park in the port of Havana in early 1998.

Officially, the vessel's presence was announced as an "act of courtesy friendly " toward Cuba , but in reality the U.S. government wanted to protect its citizens in case the Cuban revolutionaries take control of the island. In the evening of 15 February , a mysterious explosion destroyed the battleship Maine anchored in Havana harbor , killing 260 men .

Americans reacted with fury, and the newspapers announced their readers that " the destruction of the battleship Maine " was " the work of the enemy ," the Assistant Secretary Roosevelt was "convinced that the explosion of the ship war is not an accident "and that naval officers thought that the Maine had been deliberately " destroyed by a Spanish mine . " In short, without any evidence, the Americans accused the Spanish authorities to be the cause of the disaster.

President McKinley then summoned Spain evacuated Cuba. Faced with the refusal of the Spaniards, President McKinley asked Congress on April 11, 1898 "in the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in the name of American interests at risk ," the permission to hunt the Spanish forces in Cuba . On April 25 , the U.S. Congress approved the resolution gave the president the power to use the land and naval forces to carry out the war against Spain.

 

On 1 May 1898 , the Americans sank the Spanish fleet in the harbor of the Philippines in Manila. The squadron at Santiago de Cuba suffered the same fate , on July 3. In August , the Spanish government was resigned to seek peace through France. Under the terms of the peace treaty signed in Paris December 10, 1898 , Spain ceded not only Cuba, but Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, and received compensation of $ 20 million ( for the " sale "of the Philippines) . Cuba obtained a theoretical independence , as the island became in fact an American protectorate , while Puerto Rico , the Philippines and Guam became American colonies , by the way, the Americans had succeeded in annexing Hawaii. Thus ended the Spanish colonial empire , while the United States, which had begun a war of liberation , had laid the foundations of their own colonial empire.

 

During the Spanish American War, many efforts were made to create yet fully Indian units , but no results . Buffalo Bill himself financed a test for recruiting Indian regiment. Most ended up in the first voluntary control by Theodore Roosevelt , better known as the Rough Riders regiment.

 

Most were enrolled in the L band and came from the Indian Territory , now Oklahoma. Roosevelt , not being a fan of Indian , recognized in them excellent horsemen and soldiers of great courage.


Roosevelt also recognized that they had the ability to get along with all the men of the unit, as Indian and white added to the end of the war he would have liked to have a lot more in his troops.

The rough riders and these Indians fought in Cuba, the Philippines but also during the Boxer rebellion in China.

 

During this war , Native American women began to serve in the army as a nurse . The Daughters of the American Revolution Hospital Corps formed four women Lakota nurse Susan Bordeaux (the Reverend Mother Mr. Anthony ) , Ella Clark (the Reverend Sister M. Gertrude ), Anna B. Pleets (the Reverend Mother M. Bridget ) , and Josephine Two Bears (the Reverend Sister M. Joseph ) .

 

 

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In addition to their medical training, they received him internships in local homes and hospitals under the supervision of Reverend Francis Craft from 1895.

 

When war broke out in 1898 , Craft offered the service of four nurses Lakota army . During the conflict, they nursed the wounded and sick soldiers at Camp Cuba Libre in Jacksonville , Florida to camp Ornward in Savannah , Georgia.

 

They lived in tents and receiving paid $ 30 a month, pretty good pay for the time.

Four Lakota nurses will each receive the Cross of the Order of Spanish American War Nurses. After the war , they worked in an orphanage in Cuba . One of them, Susan died; Bordeaux of pneumonia in October 1899 and was buried with military honors at Arlington National Military Cemetery .

Despite years of oppression , the Indians responded to the call of war. For many of them , military service was a long warrior tradition family . Many of them hoped to get a better socio-economic status.

Newspapers of the time have articles on Buffalo Bill that plans to mobilize 30,000 Indians for the war , but in reality he could not enlist as 600 Lakota .

At the end of April , the 1st Volunteer Cavalry was formalized . He had 200 Indians of Arizona, 340 Indians of New Mexico and 170 Indians of Indian Territory .

After a month-long training in San Antonio, the 1st Volunteer Cavalry Regiment sailed for Tampa, Florida. But many men had deserted diseases.


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Can before the month of June, the regiment was sent to Cuba. A member of the troupe L, Thomas Isbell participated in a heroic way in the battle of Cuba June 24, 1898 . one of the four men sent to scout , Isbell killed one enemy and was wounded seven times in the commitment of Las Guasimas . Roosevelt later said of this Cherokee, he was the first to kill and the first to be hurt. Most notable was the fact that he refused to leave his post despite his many injuries.

Native Americans contributed significantly to the war. A war veteran , John Alley, noted later that suffered losses only on the Indian territory during his 34 commitments in the war count for half of its official entry into the United States . He also pointed out that many of these men were Amerindian origins .

Theodore Roosevelt became president of the united states, will fight in all its mandates to rebuild the Indian world. He repeatedly refuse the sale of Indian land , the better protected the Indian territory of the white settlement and lay the foundations of American citizenship for Native Americans . For him, this was a perfect thanks to his brave soldiers .

The spanish american war will also see the first use mass techniques Indians fighting the army , especially in regard to the guerrillas and the orientation.

The war led primarily to create a healthier climate in relations between whites and Indians.

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