|THE INDIAN WARS|
|1610 - 1890|
AMERICAN INDIAN POPULATION :
1610 : 25 MILLIONS.
1900: 250 000.
The Indian wars are all wars between the European settlers and the government of the United States North American Indian peoples , from 1778 to 1890. Although no war was officially declared by the Congress of the United States, the army was constantly at war against these people from 1778. They are extended in the nineteenth century by violence and many massacres by both sides. The American historian Howard Zinn said that " U.S. governments [ have ] signed more than four hundred treaties with the Indians and [ have ] violated all without exception " . It should be noted that the word used by killing whites often meant military defeats in battles ( Fetterman Massacre , Little Big Horn Massacre ) and " white civilians " tribes were attacked by armed settlers came to take possession of their land. Indian wars were a genocidal enterprise, characterized by the white conquerors of many massacres of indigenous North American Indian villages.
Sign in detail all the battles and skirmishes of the Indian wars would be too long, but here's the summary.
Sign in detail all the battles and skirmishes of the Indian wars would be too long, but here's the summary.
|1610 - 1646||ANGLO POWHATANS WAR||
Are a series of wars between the settlers of the English colony of Virginia to the Native American Powhatan Confederacy.
The British colony of Massachusetts attacked the Pequot village Missituck with mercenaries Mochegans and Narragansetts, there are between 400 and 700 deaths. The use of the name Pequot becomes outlawed in Englishwomen colonies. Pequot survivors are hunted and sold as slaves.
|1655 - 1664||
Wars between the Algonquins and the colonies of the United Provinces (current Netherlands), New York and New Jersey.
|1675 - 1676||KING PHILIP WAR||
Conflict between the Wampanoag and the English settlers on the Mayflower in Massachusetts. 600 English colonists and 4,000 Native Americans were killed.
Massacre of Ocaneechees indians by Nathaniel Bacon.
Carolina Tuscarora War against Native Americans that protected runaway slaves.
Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa (tribe of the Great Lakes), is the head of the tribes of the Great Lakes and Ohio to drive the British out. Despite the military occupation of New France, Pontiac continues the fight to protect its territory against the British. Pontiac's Rebellion will spread among other Amerindian peoples. The warriors of many tribes joined the Indian uprising whose aim was to push the forces and British colonies outside their territory. The conflict begins the last year of the Seven Years' War Franco-British (1754-1763).
|1774||LORD DUNMORE WAR||
The Treaty of Fort Stanwik causes additional pressure settlers. In spring 1774, Shawnee trying to get rid of British settlers. Lord John Murray Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, with the settlers of Pennsylvania repression: seven Mingo villages are destroyed, a fort was built at Little Kanawha River.10 October: Battle of Point Pleasant, the British defeated the Shawnee. General Amherst gave the order to distribute blankets infected with smallpox. Several thousand Indians Delaware contaminated and spread the "smallpox" to other Indian nations. In these circumstances peace is imposed. Virginia militiamen destroyed during the negotiations several Shawnee villages.
First treaty of the United States with an Indian tribe, the tribe of Delaware.
|JULY 13rd, 1787||
Northwest Ordinance opens the colonization of the Northwest Territories, between Appalachian, Great Lakes, Mississippi and Tennessee. Any territory or Indian nor will they be removed without their consent, except as a result of a war declared by Congress. No war was never declared by Congress to tribes.
|1790 - 1795||YOUNG AMERICA WAR||
Following the Northwest Ordinance, the settlers began to move more in the territories of the tribes Shawnees, Ottawas and Miamis. These tribes are united to fight the federal armies.
|1816 - 1821||FIRST SEMINOLE WAR||
The Seminoles are the Creek Indians settled in Florida in the 1700s, encouraged to settle as farmers by the Spaniards, who hoped to stop the advance of the British to the South.
|MAY 28th, 1830||INDIAN REMOVAL ACT||
President Andrew Jackson passed a law deporting Indians living east of the Mississippi to the west of the river, mainly in Oklahoma, to exploit or located in their territories in Ohio and install migrants from Europe. This law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and leads to wars with the Cherokees until 1838. Until 1850, 100,000 Indians were deported.
|1832||BLACK HAWK WAR||
The Sauk warrior Black Hawk tries to drive the settlers land of his people. Combined with Fox, he leaves the Territory of Iowa where his people lived since the Treaty of St. Louis (1805) to regain its ancestral lands.
|1838||THE TRAIL OF TEARS||
5 nations were deported to Oklahoma on a path of 1750 km during winter. At least 8,000 Indians die along the way.
|1835 - 1842||SECOND SEMINOLE WAR||
Second Seminole War: According to the same process as the Cherokees, the government did sign a minority of the Treaty of Payne Seminole Landing (1832), which required them to leave their land in three years. In 1835, the U.S. army was sent to enforce the treaty. At the height of the war, 10,000 regular soldiers and militiamen clashed 30,000 5,000 warriors who practiced a war of ambushes and shots of hands, American losses went up to 1500 men.
|1855 - 1858||THIRD SEMINOLE WAR||
Clashes took place in 1855 between the Americans and about 200 Seminoles remained in Florida.
|1860 - 1864||NAVAJO WAR||
Following various skirmishes in the Territory of New Mexico between the Navajos and federal troops, the Navajos go to Kit Carson, which is destroying their property and deported to Bosque Redondo, Arizona. This is the Long March of the Navajos: 8000 Navajos are 620 km on foot. After four years of under-nutrition, they are allowed to return to their lands.
After a harsh winter, the 6000 Nevada Paiutes decide to attack American settlers held responsible for their misfortune to have cut too many trees.
|JULY 1st, 1862||
The Pacific Railway Act was signed by Abraham Lincoln: it allows the construction of the first line of transcontinental railway. Hunters (Buffalo Bill is the most famous) kill millions of bison heads to feed the workers.
The Sioux War : The discontent of the Sioux turned to revolt. Rise of Indian soon became widespread throughout Minnesota and neighboring Dakota. If some white settlers were killed, the U.S. military quickly send large reinforcements to quell the revolt this Amerindian blood . The Government of the United States does not deliver the goods as promised due to the purchase of land Santee Sioux (or Dakota ) and the Sisseton - Wahpeton Sioux tribes . Exploding During the Civil War , the massacre by the Sioux enjoys the lack of enemy troops available.
This war will be over a thousand people including more than 800 Sioux and more than 350 American colonists . Nearly two thousand Indians were captured . They were eventually tried in mass trials by military tribunals . 303 were judged guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death. Of those convicted , 38 men were hanged in Mankato, the day after Christmas , in the largest mass execution in the history of the United States. Abraham Lincoln commuted the other inmates in prison . About 1500 Sioux are held at Fort Snelling until spring 1863 , 130 died while in custody. Leaders Shakopee and Medicine Bottle , refugees in Canada are kidnapped and hanged in 1863. Little Crow was also killed by a settler in the same year .
|1865 - 1871||PLAINS WAR||
The Sand Creek massacre shocked the Indian tribes. Many tribes then began hostilities, leading scattered raids, forcing the Union soldiers to be stationed along the Oregon Trail to protect, including Platte Bridge.
|1872 - 1873||MODOCS WAR||
The Modoc live in Northern California and Southern Oregon. They lead the first few raids on railway wagons. Colonization starting in the valley of Lost River, the settlers demand that the Indians are moved to the reserve and Snakes Klamath, Modoc enemies. However, 372 Modoc end up settling in the reserve, they leave in April 1869.
|1874 - 1875||RED RIVER WAR||
It is caused by several factors: the territorial pressure settlers, protected by the construction of forts by the army, the Indian customs permanent guerrilla annihilation of the buffalo by white hunters. It takes place in the southern Great Plains.
|1876||BLACKS HILLS WAR||
Announcement by Lieutenant Colonel Custer of the discovery of gold in the Sioux sacred mountains of the Black Hills. The gold rush caused resulting clashes between Sioux, Cheyenne and the U.S. Army.
|1877||NEZ PERCÉS WAR||
Pressure from settlers led to a first treaty delimiting the territory Nez Perce in 1855. Treaty with the Government of the United States seeks review in 1863 , lowering the surface of the reserve 90%. Some leaders, including Lawyer ( Lawyer ) sign the treaty, and go into a reserve of Idaho. Five tribes refuse to be locked into a reserve , including the Old Chief Joseph . His son Joseph Young Chef continues to deny the treaty, and to maintain good relations with the authorities of Wallowa . They decided in 1873 that the land occupied by settlers were acquired illegally , and ask them to evacuate .
In 1876, the Battle of Little Big Horn increases the pressure of the army for the Indians are confined to their reserves. But the Nez Perce do not find suitable land in the reserve in Idaho, refuse the ultimatum to General Oliver Howard, May 3, 1877 . The Nez Perce remaining seats are divided into three groups: some joined the reserve , others head to the plains bison, the last group tries to escape to Canada.
|1878 - 1879||CHEYENNES WAR||
After the Treaty of Fort Wise, challenged by Cheyenne for corruption , full Gold Rush Pikes Peak , Colorado , Cheyenne were victims in 1864 Sand Creek Massacre during which Colorado militia killed 150 Cheyenne , at least 50 civilians. Early in the morning of November 27, 1868 began the Battle of Washita River where Lt. Colonel of the Army of the United States George Armstrong Custer led the 7th Cavalry in an attack on a band of Cheyenne guilty of raids led by Chief Black Kettle . 148 Cheyenne were killed, including 20 women and children. The Northern Cheyenne , Cheyenne South and some participated in the Battle of Little Bighorn (June 25, 1876). With the Lakota and a small band of Arapaho , they annihilated George Armstrong Custer and his contingent near the Little Bighorn River . The population of the camp of the Cheyenne , Lakota and Arapaho near the site of the battle are an estimated 6,000 (including 1,500 warriors ) which would make it the largest Native American gathering in North America before the widespread use of reserves.
After the Battle of Little Bighorn , attempts to force the United States to capture the Cheyenne intensified. A group of 972 Cheyenne was deported to Indian Territory in Oklahoma in 1877 . There, conditions were terrible , the Northern Cheyenne are not used to the climate , and soon many were suffering from malaria. In 1878 , the two main leaders, Little Wolf and Morning Star ( Dull Knife) , demanded the release of the Cheyenne so he can return to the north. The same year, a group of about 350 Cheyenne left Indian Territory to the north , led by the two leaders. The army soldiers and civilian volunteers , estimated the total number to 13,000 , were quickly in pursuit. The band quickly broke into two groups. The group led by Little Wolf returned to Montana. The band Morning Star was captured and escorted to Fort Robinson , Nebraska , where she was kidnapped . They were ordered to return to Oklahoma, they promptly and firmly refused . Conditions became more difficult at the end of 1878 , and soon the Cheyenne were confined to their quarters , no food, no water, no heating.
In January 1879 , Morning Star and his companions escaped from Fort Robinson. Most were shot while fleeing the fort. The number of survivors , who joined other Northern Cheyenne in Montana an estimated 50 . Thanks to their determination and sacrifice , the Northern Cheyenne had earned the right to remain in the north near the Black Hills. In 1884, by executive order , a reserve for the Northern Cheyenne was established in southeastern Montana. This reserve was expanded in 1890 to extend the Crow reservation in the west to the Tongue River to the east .
Revolt of the Mimbres Apaches led by Victorio. About 400 settlers and soldiers were killed.
Victorio was killed in Mexico and his group decimated.
Geronimo, the last Apache chief to resist the deportation of his tribes in a reserve surrender to General Miles.
|FEBRUARY 8th, 1887||
Vote the General Allotment Act, or Dawes Act Severalty by Congress authorizing the president to sell Indian lands to individuals, in small plots. This subdivision is amplified by the Burke Act of 1906. It aims to remove the collective ownership of land, and transform Indian farmers. The remainder is distributed to the settlers, and Oklahoma became a state in 1907.
The Paiute shaman Wovoka had a vision that inspires the Ghost Dance. The message: "let it do the great spirit" is interpreted as a call to revolt or as a call to fatalism.
Under the General Allotment Act, the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes, where the Cherokee Indians, Seminoles, Creeks, Choctaw and Chickasaw were deported in 1830, is open to settlers.
|DECEMBER 15th, 1890||
Sitting Bull, the Sioux chief, was killed during his preventive arrest (for fear of a revolt sparked by the Ghost Dance).
|DECEMBER 29th, 1890||
Wounded Knee massacre, massacre of 250 Miniconjous Indians at Wounded Knee Creek, including 130 civilians and Chief Big Foot, by the soldiers of the 7th Cavalry, 25 Americans were killed, some victims of friendly fire.
In the census, Indians are more than 250,000.