1000 - 1900




Around the year 1000 in three sagas say: "Vinland Sagas" (The Saga of the Greenlanders, Erick the Red's Saga and Says Greenlanders), Leif Erikson sailed from Greenland to a land he calls Vinland. Remained long in legendary status, the truth of these stories was confirmed in 1960 during archaeological excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows (northern tip of the island of Newfoundland), but there is no evidence that it is indeed the Vinland of Leif Erikson. Stormy relationships with indigenous are probably not unrelated to the evacuation of the village, within a few decades more.
In 2002, a thesis by British Gavin Menzies argued that part of the fleet of Zheng He would have bypassed southern Africa up to the Atlantic to the Caribbean, another part would have crossed the Strait of Magellan explore the west coast of America and, finally, a third party would have sailed into the cold waters of the Antarctic. The coasts of Australia have even been reached during these explorations.
Christopher Columbus was the first browser that transatlantic journeys are attested both written (some autobiographical) by many testimonies of his contemporaries or physical evidence (Indians brought in Europe and presented to the court of Spain). He made four trips from Europe to America in the name of the Catholic Monarchs: in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502.

During his first voyage in 1492, Christopher Columbus thought he had landed in the "Indies", the legendary riches countries described among others by the stories of Marco Polo. On 12 October, he landed on an island in the Bahamas called Guanahani (probably San Salvador, but the exact location is still debated). On 28 October, he discovered Cuba. In November, he reached the island of Hispaniola.

During his second voyage began in late 1493, he discovered the Desiderada (Désirade), Maria Galanda (Marie-Galante) and Dominica. He then discovered Karukera or Santa Maria de Guadalupe de Extremadura (Basse-Terre in Guadeloupe), Montserrat, Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy. In April 1494, he arrived in Puerto Rico and Jamaica.

During the third, he landed on the continent at present Venezuela and also visited: St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, Margarita.

For his fourth and last voyage, Columbus sailed along the coast of Veragua and Panama.

Convinced he reached the Far East, he died without knowing that he had "discovered" America. Attributed to his companion Amerigo Vespucci having been the first European to mention the fact that the land that Columbus had discovered were not Asia but in reality the New World.

From the European point of view, Columbus, navigator in the service of Spain, is the first to discover America. This statement is not neutral, since the discovery created a right of ownership recognized by the Pope and the King of Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed June 7, 1494, which establishes the division of the New World between the Spain and Portugal in line with the meridian located 370 miles (1770 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands - Meridian now estimated at 46 ° 37 'west.
 JUNE 24, 1497
Venetian John Cabot landfall and explore the coast for some time before returning to England. The precise location of its first docking is controversial, but the Canadian and British governments consider it arrived in Bonavista, Newfoundland.
João Fernandes Lavrador mapping the north-eastern North America, and probably discovered Labrador. On May 30 the same year, Christopher Columbus began his third expedition. He visited St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, Margarita, and the coast of Venezuela near the Orinoco.
Alonso de Ojeda recognizes South America near the Orinoco. He discovered a natural harbor which he called "Venezuela" (in English "Little Venice"), he landed in Guyana.
Amerigo Vespucci between Ojeda and continues his journey to the mouth of the Amazon.
APRIL 22, 1500 
Pedro Alvares Cabral reached the coast of Brazil.
The same year, Vicente Yañez Pinzon and Diego de Lepe explored the northern coast of Brazil and the Portuguese explorer Gaspar Corte-Real is landed on the coast of Newfoundland.
Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel manage likely to Labrador and Newfoundland. They separate, and Gaspar disappears without a trace. Miguel launches an expedition to find him in 1502, and leaves her.
The same year, the Spaniard Rodrigo de Bastidas from the coast of present-day Colombia in 1502 and reached La Punta Manzanillo, near the Isthmus of Panama.
While Veléz Mendoza explores the northern coast of Brazil. Gonçalo Coelho and Amerigo Vespucci trying to find a passage to Asia down to South America.
JANUARY 1st, 1502   
Amerigo Vespucci discovered a large bay which he named Rio de Janeiro. He then goes to Patagonia, but can not find a passage to Asia.
 JANUARY 6, 1504
not Paulmier Gonneville docked in Brazil, on the coast of the island of São Francisco do Sul at the mouth of the bay Babitonga, or at the mouth of the Rio Sul Francisco, where he spent six months in dry dock. On 3 July, he returned to France with Essomeric or Essemeric, the son of the chief of the tribe of Carijós.
Jehan Denis made a map of Newfoundland after having set foot.
Martin Waldseemüller publishes Cosmographiae Introductio also called the Waldseemüller Map. First mention of the name America on a map. Representation of the Isthmus of Panama and a possible transition between the two American continents allowing free access between the two oceans. Representation also mountain ranges of the Andes and Rocky Mountains yet officially unknown in 1507. It will wait for the official trip of Magellan in 1520, to address the shores of the Pacific Ocean.
Juan Ponce de León founded the colony of Caparra on the island of Puerto Rico, in 1521 she moved back to San Juan.
 APRIL 2, 1513  
Juan Ponce de Leon is probably the first European to land on the territory of the modern United States, Florida.
SEPTEMBER 25, 1513
Vasco Núñez de Balboa sees for the first time the Pacific Ocean from a hill east of the Isthmus of Panama.
JULY 25,1515 Panfilo de Narváez founded Havana. Francisco Hernández de Córdoba explore Nicaragua and Honduras in 1516.
APRIL 22, 1519
Hernán Cortés founded the city of Veracruz, and participated in the conquest of Mexico.
SEPTEMBER 1519 - NOVEMBER 1st,  1520
the fleet of Ferdinand Magellan bypasses America en route to Indonesia. On 1 November 1520, it enters the Strait of Magellan.
Pascual Andagoya fails in his attempt to conquer Peru.
Francisco Pizarro began his first expedition to Peru, which quickly turns to disaster.
The same year, Giovanni da Verrazano was commissioned by King Francis I of France to explore the region between Florida and Newfoundland. he discovered including the bay of New York, which he named "New Angoulême."
Pizarro restarts in shipping and arrives in Peru in 1528.
In April of the same year, Panfilo de Narvaez landed in Florida. Chased by the natives, it disappears in a storm while trying to return to Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro began his third expedition to Peru with 180 men and three ships. November 15, 1532, he captured the Inca Atahualpa, it is then executed. In 1534 he went to Cuzco.
Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
1535 - 1536
during a second trip, Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River to the Indian village of Hochelaga, where he named the highest hill Mount Royal.
30 MAI 1539
Hernando de Soto arrived in Espiritu Santo (Tampa Bay) and began exploring within the current United States.
The same year, Francisco de Ulloa explores occidendales coasts of Mexico and discovered the Gulf of California which he dubbed "Sea of Cortés." It runs along its shores and discovers the existence of the Peninsula of Baja California that bypasses to the Bay of La Paz.
Soto reached the Appalachian Mountains and stayed a month. On 8 May 1541, Soto discovered the Mississippi (south of the present city of Memphis) and winter on the banks of the Arkansas. After his death, May 21, 1542, the expedition descend the Mississippi to its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico.
MAY 1541 - JULY 1543
JF de La Rocque de Roberval and Jacques Cartier return explore and colonize the St. Lawrence.
1540 - 1542
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explores the current southwestern United States will become the Alta California. It will be the first to see the Grand Canyon.
In parallel, Hernando de Alarcón at the head of a squadron, along the western coast of Mexico to the Gulf of California and discovered the mouth of the Colorado to the bottom of it.
Francisco de Orellana down the Amazon River to its mouth
Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon arrived in Guanabara Bay in Brazil to establish a French colony, Antarctic France.
Gaspard II de Coligny raise the settlement project to North America. Jean Ribault, assisted by René Goulaine of Laudonniere and accompanied by the cartographer Jacques Le Moyne de Mortuaries French landed in Florida and founded a first strongholg named Charlesfort, and in 1564 a second stronghold, Fort Caroline.
1577 - 1580
during his world tour, Francis Drake was the first to round Cape Horn by the passage that now bears his name. It then runs along the American Pacific coast to the present city of Vancouver.
1603 and 1607 Samuel de Champlain explored and mapped the coast of the Atlantic to the U.S. Boston area to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Explorations of the Great Lakes region by Champlain after the founding of Québec
Henry Hudson enters the New York Harbor and up the river that bears his name. The following year, on June 25 in search of the northwest passage, he reached the strait that bears his name and discovered the bay that bears his name on 2 August.
Willem Schouten was the first to round Cape Horn.
René Robert Cavelier de La Salle explores the lakes Erie and Ontario, the easternmost of the Great Lakes. He also reached the Ohio River.
top upper Mississippi was discovered by Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette.
1680 - 1682
From Quebec, René Robert Cavelier de La Salle, in a second trip, reached the southern Lake Michigan and down the Mississippi in its entirety to its mouth.
during a first shipment, Vitus Bering discovered the strait that bears his name, proving that the Eurasian and American continents were separated. On a second trip, he saw the southern coast of Alaska, and landed on Kayak Island or in the vicinity. Under the command of Alexei Chirikov, his Russian companion, a second ship discovered the northwest coast of North America, including the Alexander Archipelago that is to say, the Southeast Alaska is current.
1799 - 1804
Expeditions of Alexander von Humboldt in South America.
1804 - 1806
Expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in the American West.
Frederick William Beechey explored the north coast of Alaska and discovers Point Barrow.
1831 - 1836
Charles Darwin's voyage to South America.
1850 - 1854
Robert McClure proves the existence of the Northwest Passage that journey from west to east.
Robert Peary reached the North Pole.
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