1775 - 1783










During the 1760s , the disappearance of the French threat and growth

population led to a settlement expansion westward. Eager to redraw

new frontiers in its various possessions in North America and to end

unauthorized colonies in indigenous territories implantation, the Crown issued in 1763

a Royal Proclamation that created the new colony of Quebec (which included what

Now Quebec and Ontario) . A subsequent treaty concluded at Fort Stanwix in 1768 , established between

Aboriginal and white border lines for which one would Oneida Lake (north of the New

York ) to the limits of Pennsylvania and then obliquait south -west heading towards the

Ohio River then she married the course.


Designed to protect the Great Lakes nations and ensure a peaceful expansion

border area , these measures angered neighboring American colonies , who regarded them as

arbitrary attempt on the part of the mother country , to limit their westward expansion . this

Resentment , coupled with an increase in taxes imposed to cover the costs of defending

the colony provoked widespread civil unrest during the 1770s. While Thirteen

American colonies were preparing to break openly with the British ( what happened

in 1775 at Lexington and Concord , Massachusetts ) , the two sides tried to recruit

Aboriginal allies .

Both belligerents seek first the neutrality of Indian tribes for fear of their method of savage war . Neither party wanted to tarnish his image by being the first to use the wild .

But the need in this hotly contested conflict gave way to scruples.

India's choice was simple: most property values and commerce came from England, while most of the intruders on their hunting grounds were settlers .

The colonial cause was hopeless, they went up to offer sovereign states and congressional representatives to Delaware and Cherokee tribes , but the offers were rejected.


The tribes most affected by the war were members of the Iroquois confederation. Powerful and mainly pro -British Confederation held a strategic area along the Hudson River between Canada and the thirteen colonies.

The six nations of the confederacy politically disputed . The Seneca , Mohawk , Cayuga and Onondaga joined the British while the Oneida and Tuscarora supported the American cause.

The U.S. Congress authorized George Washington hired 2,000 Indians in his army, eventually 250,000 men in his army , at least 5,500 were Indians.


A large number of Indians who served the colonial question were descendants of Christians '' Indians of New England .'' Totally assimilated , Christianized and married to white, they came from nations Mahicans , Wappinger and many tribes of the first English colonies. The Indians of Stockbridge, Massachusetts , mainly descendants of Mahicans formed a company in full colonial army and fought in the major battles of the American Revolution.

The company disappeared in August 1778 when it fought against the Queen 's Rangers , an elite British cavalry unit . Mahicans 40 were killed and 10 captured. After the battle , the people of Stockbridge buried the bodies of the soldiers making military honors on a site known today as the Indian Field in the Bronx , New York.


Oneida also heavily Christianized , formed an independent because the colonial militia under the command of Captain Tewahangaraghken said Honyery Doxtator . At the Battle of Oriskany , his wife Tyonajanegen , reload his gun and rifle her husband seriously injured while continuing the fight. The Battle of Oriskany marked the breaking of the Iroquois Confederacy . Oneida fought against the Mohawks led by Joseph Brant, Mohawk leader and British military officer .

The American Revolution turned into a civil war in the Iroquois Confederation , to the point where a true Oneida Americans was captured by his own brother, loyal to the British !


The defeat and surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga led to the France alongside

American rebels and the conflict spread to the dimensions of a European war. During the five

following years, the native allies of England , led by Mohawk chief Thayendanegea

( also named Joseph Brant) , participated in a series of campaigns and raids against settlements

border of New York and Pennsylvania . There was no district or to one side or the other.

Although the theater conventional warfare has moved to the south in 1780 , the allies

England won their most notable successes - Sandusky and Blue Licks - after

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781. But Aboriginal people also suffered casualties

terrible . The territories of the Iroquois League were devastated in a punitive campaign

U.S. conducted in 1779 and , in 1782, produced one of the worst episodes of the war , while

American soldiers massacred at Gnadehutten more than one hundred Indians Delaware -

men, women and children.


Never suffered defeat , Brant and his warriors were stunned by learning

terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 , which put an end to hostilities and traced in America

North , a new international boundary between the British possessions and old

colonies. Negotiated and concluded in Europe by European statesmen and American this treaty

contained not a single reference to indigenous nations who participated in the conflict, even

he yielded to the new American republic territories of those who had fought alongside

of England. Indians, wrote to London an officer of the Indian Department , felt , with

reason, betrayed by the treaty. they are :


¼ believe we behaved toward them in a treacherous and cruel way , they

told me they could not believe that our King could pretend to give U.S.

which does not belong to [ ¼ ] they defend their just rights or perish thereby

to the last man , they were a handful , but they died like

men, they believed preferable to misery and distress that they would be their lot

were deprived of their hunting grounds


This resentment was so strong that the British authorities feared long after 1783 ,

being attacked by their former allies , but fortunately for Canada , Americans

treated him so badly their new and involuntary subjects that they returned gradually,

Despite this betrayal , their traditional allegiance .


They offered Loyalist Iroquois , as the white Loyalists land in Canada

financial compensation. Brant, warlord and Tekarihogen , chief peacetime led

1800 Mohawk , Cayuga and other Aboriginal people in a vast area located along the

Grand River (Grand River ), north of Lake Erie , while John Deserontyon implanted a

smaller at Tyendinaga Mohawk community in the Bay of Quinte (Lake Ontario) . John Graves

Simcoe, governor of the new colony of Upper Canada , established in 1791 and was to become Ontario hoped that these new settlements would actively prevent a possible U.S. attack from the south .


After the war , the new United States treated the Indians as enemies to be destroyed, unfortunately they made no distinction between allies and pro-British enemies.
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