1812 WAR

1812 WAR
1812 -1815

 

BELLIGERENTS :

-        GREAT BRITAIN AND CANADA HELP BY 10 000 INDIANS FROM NATIONS CHICKAMAUGA, SHAWNEE, CREEK, OJIBWAY, RENARDS, IROQUOIS, MIAMIS, MINGO, OUTAOUAIS, KICKAPOUS, LENAPES, MASCOUTINS, POTAWATOMI, SAUK, WYANDOT.

 

-        UNITED STATES WITH THE HELP OF 3 000 INDIANS FROM  NATIONS CHOCTAW ET CHEROKEES.

 

 

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During the War of 1812, the Native American tribes still were faced with a dilemma. North of the border , many Indians followed the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, who called the nations fight the American enemy . General in the British army, Tecumseh die has Batille The Thames October 5, 1813 .

 
In the south, the powerful Creek nation divided on allegiance to . A civil war broke out between the (pro -British ) and red shirts ( pro-American ) white shirts.

 
Andrew Jackson , the future president of the United States, with the help of a Cherokee regiment crushed red shirts at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama.

 
Assisted by the Chief Pushmataha and Choctaw Warriors 500 , Andrew Jackson then attacked Pensacola, Florida.

 
Death Christmas Eve 1824 , the Chief Pushmataha was buried with military honors given by the Secretary of the Navy , a body of American Marines and two companies of the American militia. More than 2000 people followed his funeral procession and was elevated to the rank of General of the Army of the United States while being recognized as the greatest patriot of young America . ¸

 
The disastrous defeat of the Thames marked the end of the military power of the people of the North -

West. Some nations continued to fight and experienced some success in Prairie du Chien

( on the upper Mississippi ) in 1814 , but most concluded a separate peace with the United States or

fled into British territory , where they were reduced to the status of asylum- help

social fairly generous . During the third year of the war (1814) , military campaigns

put into question , both sides , regular troops engaged in pitched battles

in the Niagara Peninsula and the Lake Champlain Valley . Some indigenous nations

Northwest and their allies of Canadas participated in these battles but acted little more than

as augmentees .

 
The war having ended their traditional way of life , many aboriginals

could provide more by agriculture or hunting, their families and found themselves

dependent on rations provided by the UK authorities. Gold as a food shortage

prevailed in Upper Canada towards the end of hostilities , many of them starving .

Little Crow , leader of the Sioux , and informed the officers of the Indian Department :

 

Although you bring aid to all your children , you must meet too

number before help reaches us . Recently, we have received much help from you ,

Father, because half of our nation is starved , mouth full of fragments

skin because they had no other food. I always thought , and I still think that

this is nothing else than problems you have with the Americans.

 

In August 1814 , peace negotiations were undertaken on neutral ground, in the city

Dutch Ghent . Aware of the disastrous failure of the indigenous peoples in the Treaty of

Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War , the British negotiators demanded

that indigenous allies Britain are included in the treaty and " a border

states is established on their territory. " The British government granted such

importance of this provision that its negotiators informed their American counterparts that

"they were not allowed to conclude a treaty that does not include the Indians as allies of His

Majesty , and [the establishment of ] an Indian territory was necessary to conclude

a permanent peace. "

 

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Americans were even more shocked to learn that "the purpose of government

British was that the Indians should be a permanent barrier between our colonies

west and the adjacent British province, " and none of the two countries" should now be

the right to purchase or acquire any part of the territory and recognized as belonging

the Indians. " When the Americans did notice about a hundred thousand of their

citizens living in the region that the British proposed to establish Aboriginal country

and inquired , with reason, " intentions of the British government towards them" , they

replied , somewhat disobliging , that "these people, who would be included in the territory

India must make their own arrangements and fend for themselves . "

 

The British position was totally unacceptable to the Americans and the negotiations

floundered . After many discussions about it, the American delegates proposed that the treaty

features , rather than the creation of an Indian border in the north - west of the republic , "a

amnesty provision , general and reciprocal guarantee to all persons , as well as red

white , the rights they enjoyed before the outbreak of war. " the

British negotiators rejected this proposal , but after consultation with London , received

the order to abandon the requirement of creating a border state and propose instead to increase the Treaty

the following article :

 

The United States of America is committed to put an end immediately after the ratification of

this Treaty, to hostilities against all Indian tribes or nations with whom they

could be at war at the time of such ratification and make on - the - field such

tribes or nations, respectively , all the possessions , rights and privileges which they

could enjoy or to which they were entitled in 1811 , before the war .

Provided, always , that the said tribes and nations agree to waive all

hostilities against the United States of America , their citizens and subjects, as soon as the

ratification of this treaty has been served said tribes and nations , which will cease

hostilities accordingly.

 

This article ended on a parallel commitment on the part of Great Britain and

was accompanied by a diplomatic note which indicated that it was an ultimatum

depended on the continuation of negotiations .

 

 
It is almost certain that the authors of the article focused indigenous nations living

American territory and who had fought for Britain during the war,

particularly those in the Northwest who joined Tecumseh's confederacy . proof

is that the article refers to the year 1811 , during which engaged in the Northwest

fighting, which lead to the Battle of Tippecanoe, and not 1812, the Declaration of

war of the United States against Great Britain . After lengthy discussion , the delegates

Americans accepted the proposal that became Article IX of the Treaty of Ghent , signed on December 24

1814.

 

Three days later , the British government was holding a copy of the treaty to Sir

George Prevost and drew his attention to these articles on indigenous peoples " that can

be at war against one or other of the signatory parties. " He was given orders to their

that "the Crown would not have agreed to make peace with the United States unless the

nations or tribes who were our allies are included in [ the process of] peace . "

Prevost had to do " everything possible " to bring indigenous peoples living in the United States

States to conclude a separate peace with the U.S. government , " we could not be justified in

provide more support if they persisted in the war . "
 
 


Tyendinaga Mohawk warrior, Fall 1813
Although few, the warriors of the small Mohawk community of Tyendinaga
near Kingston, participated in many battles during the War of 1812, including Sacketts Harbor and Peninsula
Niagara in 1813. It was during the Battle of Crysler's Farm in November 1813 they are shown as having played an important role in spite of their small number. This warrior is represented as it could
see at Crysler's Farm
Table of Ron Volstad



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Prevost did not receive this dispatch before March 1815, but it had already been made aware , from

October 1814 , certain articles of the Treaty of American newspapers , in fact , published letters

official from the U.S. delegation in Ghent, letters included a draft

Article IX. He immediately ordered the Indian Department to arrange meetings with

indigenous peoples to Burlington Heights , Saginaw Bay, Michilimackinac , Green Bay and Prairie

du Chien . Ironically, all these meetings , with the exception of the Burlington Heights, were

held on U.S. soil (now Michigan and Wisconsin ) .

 

April 24 , 1815, a council was held at Burlington Heights to inform the content of the Treaty

Ghent a large contingent of warriors nations Northwest who fled in 1813 in this

village, with their families , as well as representatives from the villages of Grand River and other

Nations people in Canada. At this meeting , a senior officer of the Indian Department thanked

those present for the trouble they had given to counter American aggression and

information that, by making peace with the United States, its interests " were not neglected ."
 
 



Photo taken in the studio in July 1882 of the last survivors among the Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812.
Throughout the rest of the nineteenth century, the exemplary presence and good reputation of veterans as they ensured the survival of the tradition of military service in Aboriginal communities in central and eastern Canada. From left to right, we see the veterans of the War of the Grand River in 1812 Jacob Warner (92 years), John Tutlee (91 years) and John Smoke Johnson (93 years). The photo was taken in Brantford in 1882.
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September 18 , 1813, Chief Tecumseh , furious at the decision of the British commander to retreat from the border of Detroit, held her next speech. This is perhaps the most powerful of the misfortunes suffered by indigenous peoples summary when they found embroiled in conflicts of whites.

 

"Father !

Listen to your children , you now see in front of you all . During the war before it [ the American Revolution ] , our British father gave the hatchet to his red children, when our old chiefs were alive. They are now all dead. In this war, our father was overthrown by the Americans, and our Father gave them out to our knowledge, and we fear that our Father will do the same this time . There are two summers when I am presented with the red children , and I was ready to take the hatchet in favor of our British father, we were told not to make haste - it was not yet determined to fight the Americans .

 

Listen !

When war was declared, our father stood up and gave us the tomahawk and told us he was ready to hit the Americans , he wanted our help , and we would certainly make our lands that Americans had taken from us .

 

Listen !

You told us , then , to bring our families here . We did and you promised to take care of them and they want for nothing while the men would fight the enemy - we did not have to worry about the enemy garrisons - we don ' there knew nothing and that our Father would take care of this aspect . You also told your red children that you mind your installed garrison here , which delighted our hearts.

 

Listen ! Father , hear !

The fleet left , we know they fought , we heard the big guns , but we know nothing of what happened to our Father . Our ships are gone and we are amazed to see our Father pack everything and be prepared to go without letting them know his intentions to his red children . You always told us to stay here and take care of our land , our hearts rejoiced to know that those were your desires.

 

¼ You've always said you never would put his foot outside the United Kingdom , but now , Father, we see you back and we are sorry to see our father doing so without seeing the enemy. We must compare our Father's conduct to that of a high-fat animal that walks , tail in the air , but , when fear, put it between the legs and flees .

Listen, Father !

The Americans have not yet defeated us on earth , any more than we are certain that we have defeated the water so we would , therefore, remain here and fight the enemy if present . If they defeat us, then we will restate our Father ¼

 

Father !

You have received arms and ammunition which our Father has sent in for his red children . If you are thinking about leaving , give them to us and you can leave. Our lives are in the hands of the Great Spirit . We are determined to defend our lands and , if it is His will, we wish to leave our bones upon them. "

Tecumseh, war chief -  shawnee (1768-1813)

Tecumseh was a Shawnee chief born in 1768 . Indian Chief Shawnee tribe , he leads a large confederation of tribes who opposed the United States during the War of 1812. Tecumseh tries to stop the advance of white settlement in the Northwest. He believes that the Indians must return to their traditions , they must forget intertribal rivalries and keep the land owned in common by all the Indians.

Tecumseh joined the British against the Americans in the War of 1812. Support to Major-General Sir Isaac Brock is decisive in the capture of Detroit . Before the British approach , Tecumseh's warriors will show an endless line to the Americans. The warriors at the head of the line retrace their steps to place themselves at the tail, so that the American General is satisfied that it is besieged by an innumerable force Indians. The move prompted him to surrender to avoid a massacre after Major-General Brock has allegedly warned that the broad support of Tecumseh's warriors escape his control once the conflict committed .

 

Legend has it that Tecumseh has entered Detroit riding alongside Brock, and the latter gave him his scarf as a token of respect. About Tecumseh, Brock wrote that there was not , in his opinion , Warrior wiser or more courageous, and he aroused the admiration of all who conversed with him. As a brigadier general , Tecumseh was at the head of more than 2,000 warriors. He fought the sieges of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson , and his last battle is that of the Thames at Chatham, Ontario, where , in his traditional Indian clothing buckskin , he was killed when he commands his warriors in a last effort of resistance against the American invaders .

 

 

John Norton (Teyoninhokarawen or « the Snipe ») v. 1765-1831, war chief - Six nations

John Norton was born in Scotland of a Cherokee father and a Scottish mother . In 1784 , while still young , he joined the ranks of the British Army in Ireland. His regiment was sent to North America in 1785. While he was stationed at Fort Niagara in Youngstown (New York ) , Norton became friends with a number of members of the Six Nations and begins to learn the Mohawk . He became fascinated by its indigenous roots. He deserted the army in 1787 and began teaching children to Mohawk Teyendinaga . He left the profession in 1791 to become a fur trader and interpreter in the Department of Indian Affairs British at Fort Niagara and Fort George , Niagara . Mohawk language abilities are remarkable and he even translated the Gospel of John in the New Testament in that language. Norton is adopted by the Mohawk nation and appointed diplomat and military leader of the nation in 1799.

 

Shortly after the declaration of war in 1812 , Norton recruited a few hundred warriors of the Six Nations and Delawares to help Major- General Sir Isaac Brock at the Niagara frontier , which is threatened by a massive U.S. military stationed in Lewiston. October 13, 1812 , the Americans invaded Queenston Heights . Norton 100 warriors play a crucial role in the defeat of the American invader . Norton runs more warriors in the battles of Fort George , Stoney Creek, Beaver Dams and during many other operations during the war. At that time, it is considered as the Chief native allies in Upper Canada . Norton warlord and leader of the Peace Tree Six Nations in addition to being a major in the British Army.

In 1815, after the war , Norton spent more than a year in Britain , where he published his diary , which will be an invaluable historical source for studying the history of First Nations . He returned to Upper Canada and settled near the Grand River in 1816 , but awash in legal and financial problems . In 1823 , he went into the territory of Arkansas, United States . He wanders in the southern states for a few years before he died around 1831. We do not know the place of his burial .

John Brant (aussi appelé Dekarihokenh, Ahyouwaeghs, Tekarihogen), war chief - mohawk (1794-1832)

John is the son of the famous Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant. It is with Norton, one of the main warlords of the Haudenosaunee , or Six Nations , during the War of 1812.

 

When war broke out in 1812, Brant and Norton immediately recruit a number of warriors of the Six Nations and offer their services to British Major General Sir Isaac Brock, the British commander and president of Upper Canada ( Ontario ) . Six led by Brant and Norton nations play a key role in the Battle of Queenston Heights and several other battles during the three years of conflict. Brant remains an interesting character rooted in two worlds. It grows mainly in the mansion of his father, in Burlington, where he eats in a beautiful Chinese crockery with silver cutlery as slaves of the family take care of him, but he is also comfortable wearing skin suede with his cousins Six Nations on the Grand river. He moved to the reserve of the Grande River after the death of his father in Burlington in 1807 . This is an educated man who studied in schools of Ancaster and Niagara ( Niagara on the Lake) and could do great things if he had not died of cholera at a young age in 1832 .

After the war of 1812, Brant worked tirelessly to defend the land rights of the Six Nations and get the British call them titles. In 1821 he went to England with Robert Johnson Kerr to ask the Crown to enter into an agreement with the Six Nations on their land rights. These efforts have been exhausted and Brant returned to Upper Canada without territorial issues are resolved.

At the end of the War of 1812 , Brant receives the rank of lieutenant in the British Ministry of Indian Affairs and in 1828 he was appointed superintendent of the Six Nations of the Grand . Two years later , he was elected to the Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada House, but he lost his seat when the election is contested and that the decision is unfavorable .

Brant died at age 38 during the cholera epidemic of 1832. He is buried in the Chapel of the Mohawks of Her Majesty in Brantford .

 

 

Creek war (1813-1814)

In February 1813 , a civil war broke out in the Creek Nation , between Red Sticks and Creeks who had adopted the lifestyle of the " white men ". Americans nearby clashes were very worried that the conflict from spreading . Faced with the growing threat , they demanded that the government act quickly . However, federal troops were already mobilized for conflict with the United Kingdom and the Southern states had thus raise their own militias to defend themselves. Colonel Jackson and Major- General William Cocke led to the South a force of about 2,500 men each , to attack the Creek tribes. Both troops were mainly composed of the Tennessee militia , Cherokee warriors and soldiers.

Although Jackson 's mission was to pacify the Creeks , he pursued a more ambitious goal to take the city of Pensacola where the Spanish governor sat . At the end of the 1813 years , Jackson 's troops had won several battles, including those of Tallushatchee and Talladega . However, as the militia were engaged for three months , he was forced to disband the troops at the end of this term. After re-mobilized and trained new troops , Jackson and General John Coffee were at the head of an army of 3,200 men , composed of 2,600 soldiers and about 600 Indians.

March 27 , Jackson and Coffee decisively conquered the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , killing nearly 800 of 1,000 Creeks , against 49 killed and 154 wounded American soldiers and Cherokee . Jackson pursued the surviving Creeks until they are all made . This victory led to the Treaty of Fort Jackson , which ended the conflict Creek, August 9, 1814 . Most historians consider the Creek War is part of the War of 1812 , since the British had supported the U.S. to destabilize the government.
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